Question 1: Oxidation States (2.5 points)a. What is the oxidation state of an element? (1 point)b. Match the element or group to the rule assigning its oxidation state. (1.5 points)A. OxygenB. HydrogenC. Lone elements and atoms in gasesD. Elements with multiple oxidation statesE. Elements in groups 1, 2, and 17 and polyatomic ions_____ 0_____ Ionic charge_____ +1, – 1 if bonded to a diatomic metal_____ Almost always –2_____ Determined by other elements in the compoundQuestion 2: Redox Reactions (2 points)a. How can you tell if an element has been oxidized or reduced in a reaction? (1 point)b. Determine oxidation states and answer the following questions about the reaction 2Li + 2H2O 2LiOH + H2. (1 point)Oxidation state of Li in reactant:In product:Oxidation state of H in reactant:In product:Oxidation state of O in reactant:In product:What type of reaction is this? Is it also a redox reaction? If so, what was oxidized and what was reduced?Question 3: Half-Reactions (4 points)a. What are the half-reactions for the redox reaction CuCl2 + Zn ZnCl2 + Cu? Label the oxidation reaction and the reduction reaction. (1 point)b. What does a reduction potential chart show? What information does it give? (1 point)c. How is an oxidation half-reaction written using the reduction potential chart? How is the oxidation potential voltage determined? (1 point)d. How is the potential (voltage) of a redox reaction determined using the reduction potential chart? Calculate the voltage for the equation in 3(a). (1 points)Question 4: Balancing Redox Equations (4.5 points)a. The following reaction takes place in an acidic solution.MnO4–(aq) + Cl–(aq) Mn2+ + Cl2(g) (unbalanced) i. Write the reduction and oxidation half-reactions (without electrons). (.5 point) ii. Balance the equations for atoms (except O and H). (.5 point) iii. Balance the equations for atoms O and H using H2O and H+. (.5 point) iv. Balance the charge in the half-reactions. (.5 point) v. Multiply each half-reaction by the proper number to balance charges in the reaction. (.5 point) vi. Add the equations and simplify to get a balanced equation. (.5 point)b. Assume a reaction takes place in a basic solution to form the given products:MnO4–(aq) + Cl–(aq) MnO2(s) + Cl2(g) (unbalanced) i. Balance the given half-reactions for atoms and charge. (.5 point)MnO4– + H2O MnO2 + OH–Cl– Cl2 ii. Multiply to balance the charges in the reaction. (.5 point) iii. Add the equations and simplify to get a balanced equation. (.5 point)Question 5: Galvanic Cell (3 points)a. Give an example of a galvanic cell. What kind of reaction occurs in a galvanic cell? (1 point)b. If one electrode in a galvanic cell is made of zinc (Zn) and one is made of silver (Ag), which metal would be the cathode and which would be the anode? Explain your answer. (1 point)c. Write the standard cell notation for a galvanic cell with a silver cathode and a zinc anode. (1 point)Question 6: Electrolytic Cell (3 points)a. What kind of reaction occurs in an electrolytic cell? What characterizes its voltage? (1 point)b. What makes an electrolytic cell work? Name two applications of electrolytic cells. (1 point)c. If a piece of jewelry were electroplated with gold for 25 seconds at 1.5 A, how many grams of gold would be plated?(Note: 1 A = 6.241 1018 e–/s. The reaction for the reduction of gold ions to gold metal is Au+ + 1e– Au(s).) (1 point)Question 7: Stoichiometry (3 points)a. How is stoichiometry used to calculate amounts of substances in a chemical reaction? (1 point)b. Use the balanced equation to answer the following questions. (2 points)CuSO4(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) Cu(OH)2(s) + Na2SO4(aq) i. What is the ratio of moles of CuSO4 to moles of NaOH? (.5 point) ii. If 638.44 g CuSO4 reacts with 240.0 NaOH, which is the limiting reagent? (.5 point) iii. Use the limiting reagent to determine how many grams of Cu(OH)2 should precipitate out in the reaction. (.5 point) iv. If only 174.6 g of Cu(OH)2 precipitate were actually collected from the reaction, what would the percent yield be? (.5 point)Question 8: Scientific Themes (3 points)a. What does matter have to do with chemistry? How are forces involved? (.5 point)b. How do chemists use systems and order in their work? (.5 point)c. How do atoms demonstrate unity and diversity at the same time? (.5 point)d. How are models used in chemistry? How does evidence change these models? (.5 point)e. How do structure and function affect how molecules work? (.5 point)f. How are both stability and change seen in properties of elements? (.5 point)
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