Hello writer,You have completed before a summary for this project, here: SOLUTION: 300 words policy paper summary for Development – Developmental Economics Homework Help – StudypoolNow I need your help completing the order and writing the full paper assignment. Everything in the attached instructions document (Policy Paper)If you have any question please let me know!1
Summery – Technology Policies for Brazil
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Summery – Technology Policies for Brazil
Big business both in Brazil and other nations are vital players of development in the
firms’ countries. With the recent advancement in technology, the world economies are growing
rapidly. A wide range of studies reveals that competitiveness among nations significantly hinge
s on the generation and usage of scientific data – as this nourishes the modernization required
to design and manufacture new produces and processes (Fischer, Schaeffer, & Vonortas, 2019,
p347). The government will need to support big businesses and facilitate the combination of
scientific and technological knowledge and innovation as they are closely interconnected with
economic growth and self-governing governance globally.
For the development of Brazil, global cooperation is an intrinsic aspect of knowledge
generation. Thus, ‘big science’ sectors comprise nuclear fusion, space exploration, high-energy
physics, and astrophysics. Excellent governance and international dimension will significantly
increase Brazil’s collaboration opportunities, leading to the development of technology and
institutions.
The policy primarily evaluates the responsibility of large private businesses (BBs) within
the Brazilian National System of Innovation (NSI) (Figueiredo, Larsen, & Hansen, 2020). The
most obvious question will be: How will Brazilian political practices and the country’s innovation
processes shape the country’s NSI? Contemporary, Brazil’s big business plays a crucial role in
innovation – but rarely supports institution-intensive solutions necessary for strengthening the
NSI (Soares, Torkomian, & Nagano, 2020). Therefore, facilitating the creation of a dynamic is
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primarily referred to as a ‘low-innovation trap.’ Some of the primary obstacles that Brazil and its
big businesses are currently facing in developing the country’s economy consist of high
instability levels in the scientific sector, Inadequate cooperation between the instruments and
actors within the Brazilian government that need to push the economic development using the
available technological resources. Furthermore, lack of correspondence between the
government’s proposals and societal demands and lack of clarity on the role of big business and
technological development to the society, education, and the economy of Brazil significantly
derail the development process. The NSI is deemed unfit for development purposes if no
amicable solution between the government and business operators is established.
Brazil’s scientific and technological policies will only be meaningful and fruitful if a
coherent association of different economic players supports development policies for
technological development, industrial growth, and economic adjustment. Policies from the
Brazilian central government will only be effective if the state installs active educators and the
scientific-technological community (Franco & Assis, 2019). The proposals put forward here are
not isolation but a significant contribution to a much wider effort to develop Brazil’s economy
through active cooperation of different sectors (Yigitcanlar et al., 2019). the government and its
partners’ cooperation will significantly improve the living standards, development processes,
and unity among the citizens. Thus, paving the way for the economic improvement of Brazil
through technological invention and innovation.
4
References
Figueiredo, P. N., Larsen, H., & Hansen, U. E. (2020). The role of interactive learning in
innovation capability building in multinational subsidiaries: A micro-level study of
biotechnology in Brazil. Research Policy, 49(6), 103995.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048733320300755
Franco, S. H. R., & Assis, W. F. T. (2019). Participatory budgeting and transformative
development in Brazil. Geoforum, 103, 85-94.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016718519301095
Fischer, B. B., Schaeffer, P. R., & Vonortas, N. S. (2019). Evolution of university-industry
collaboration in Brazil from a technology upgrading perspective. Technological
forecasting and social change, 145, 330-340.
Soares, T. J., Torkomian, A. L., & Nagano, M. S. (2020). University regulations, regional
development and technology transfer: The case of Brazil. Technological Forecasting and
Social Change, 158, 120129.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040162520309550
Yigitcanlar, T., Sabatini-Marques, J., da-Costa, E. M., Kamruzzaman, M., & Ioppolo, G. (2019).
Stimulating technological innovation through incentives: Perceptions of Australian and
Brazilian firms. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 146, 403-412.
https://eprints.qut.edu.au/107887/6/QUT_eprints.pdf
5
Now, please continue working with the following instructions: (Use the attached 1 references
and include additional 3 outside references)
his is a brief paper, approximately 2500 to 3000 words, double-spaced, that examines the
government’s science/technology policy from your selected nation-state in the region and
analyzes its relevance to development. How broad or specific this policy is will depend on the
country and your interest areas, as well as whether it addresses just a technological policy or
controversy or overall science and technology state of the art.
This week that you must submit the full paper with references.
The goal is to briefly assess how the country conceptualizes and potentially implements
technological/scientific solutions, and what potential outcomes might be, both positive and
negative for social, economic, and/or environmental development. Sources that can be used
are government reports and websites that post policy, but some academic research and
analysis articles will be expected, too.
Take into consideration that you might need to consult materials that aren´t in English, in
particular, if you focus on current local issues. Consider between 7 to 10 total references to
write this piece, and you must add at least 1 reference from a scholar from that country
working in a national institution or university. (That resource may be in English, Spanish or
Portuguese, as well can be an interview, report in which contributed, academic paper, or
another respectable reference).
The paper must summarize facts and ideas, and direct quotes of sentences and phrases cited
within the text, as well as have a list of sources at the end (I recommend using APA style
format, but if you´re more conformable with another referencing style, please let me know
by week 3 in your initial submission).
The paper should have a title that indicates or hints at the central problem or thesis, and must
cover the following elements: *background to the problem – this would include history, going
only as far back as necessary to explain the current issue, author´s thesis (your way to analyzing
the issue and sources), the main perspectives and sides in play (applying development theories
or frameworks in case you´re a GTD student), potential solutions that the people is
implementing or considering, and a strong and short conclusion in which the student provides
an analysis of the issue.
Underdevelopment, Science and Technology: The Point of View of the Underdeveloped
Countries
Author(s): Francisco R. Sagasti
Source: Science Studies , Jan., 1973, Vol. 3, No. 1, Review Issue (Jan., 1973), pp. 47-59
Published by: Sage Publications, Ltd.
Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/284464
REFERENCES
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Science Studies
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Science Studies, 3 (1973), 47-59
Discussion Paper
UNDERDEVELOPMENT, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY:
THE POINT OF VIEW OF THE UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES
Francisco R. Sagasti
i. INTRODUCTION
This paper examines the interrelations between underdevelopment, science
and technology. As the subtitle suggests, it attempts to present the point of
view of the underdeveloped countries with the aim of outlining the basis for
a programme of action.
The central thesis is that science and technology were closely related to the
emergence of underdevelopment as it has so far arisen in the twentieth
century, and that to a certain extent they are contributing to the mainten-
ance and persistence of underdevelopment. In order to modify this situation,
major structural changes are required both in the way scientific and tech-
nological activities are organized within the underdeveloped countries, and in
the international structure of the world scientific and technological effort.
These changes will not come automatically. They need to be pressed by the
underdeveloped countries themselves. To avoid the disruption and the social
costs that may be involved in reshaping their scientific and technological
activities, as well as the structure of the world scientific effort, underdeveloped
countries should employ the scientific method itself in planning these changes.
The paper begins by examining the concepts of development and underdevelopment, it then explores their relation to science and technology, and
ends with some proposals on the contribution that science and technology
can make to the development of the Third World.
2. UNDERDEVELOPMENT AND DEVELOPMENT
Underdevelopment is a phenomenon in its own right. It cannot be ade.
quately studied and interpreted as a ‘stage’ in a sequential development process,
The author is now on the staff of the Department of Scientific Affairs of the Organization of American States and working with the Junta del Acuerdo de Cartagena. This
paper does not necessarily reflect the views of the above organizations.
A preliminary draft of this paper was prepared at the Management and Behavioral
Science Center of the University of Pennsylvania. The author acknowledges
comments and suggestions made by Professor Russell Ackoff on an earlier version.
Discussions held with Professor Eric Trist and with Alejandro Moya from the Organization of American States were also helpful, and greatly appreciated.
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48
Francisco
R.
Sagasti
or as an interval on a development continuum along which all countries can
be placed, and through which all must proceed in order to become ‘developed’.
As Furtadol and Sunkel and PaZ2 have shown, underdevelopment, particularly in Latin America, is a consequence of the historical process of industrialization in Europe and later in North America. Development and underdevelopment are thus two facets of the same process of expansion of western
capitalism beginning in the nineteenth century. This process involved the
creation and spread of modern technology and the establishment of an international division of labour with a few more advanced countries producing
manufactured goods and a large number of backward countries supplying
raw materials and primary commodities. Underdevelopment and development
evolved simultaneously, they were and are functionally related and they also
interact and condition each other. These two phenomena must, therefore, be
understood as interdependent parts of a single system. The key factor
differentiating these structures is that the developed, by virtue of its endogenous capacity for growth, became dominant, and the underdeveloped, because
of its incapacity for growth, became passive, dependent, and dominated.
These statements summarize the ‘structural’ view of underdevelopment
proposed by Latin American economists. They describe accurately the situation in Latin America and many other countries of Africa and Asia, although
not all underdeveloped countries can be said to fit this pattern exactly.
Following Perroux3 and Bravo Bresani4 it is possible to say that the main
characteristics of an underdeveloped country are that it is dominated, disarticulated, and incapable of providing an adequate standard of living for the
majority of its population. Domination implies that the underdeveloped
country does not have a capacity for autonomous decision making, and that
it has or exercises little control over its own destiny. External factors, beyond
the control of the underdeveloped country, are the main determinants of its
economic, social and even political decisions.
Domination is formally defined as a bilateral and asymmetric relationship,
irreversible in the short and medium terms, characterized because a change
in the dominant unit invariably results in a change in the dominated unit,
whereas a similar change in the latter has little or no effect in the former
(Bravo Bresani and Sagasti.5) Domination may thus be considered as an
extreme form of dependence. The primary form of domination of unde
developed countries by developed ones is economic, although it has been
shown that economic domination is closely related to cultural and technologiI Celso Furtado, Development and Underdevelopment (Los Angeles: University of
California Press, 1962).
2 Oswaldo Sunkel and Pedro Paz, El Subdesarrollo Latinamericano y la Teoria de
Desarrollo (Mexico: Siglo Veintiuno Editores, 1970).
3 Francois Perroux, L’Econ,omie du XXeme Siecle (Paris: Presses Universitaires d
France, I 96 i).
4Jorge Bravo Bresani, Desarrollo y Subdesarrollo (Lima: Moncloa Editores, 1966).
5 Jorge Bravo Bresani and Francisco Sagasti, Elements for a Development Strategy
in the Context of the Global Industrial System. Paper presented at the Research Conference on the Multinational Firm and the Nation State (Philadelphia, Pa.: University
of Pennsylvania, May 1971).
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Discussion
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49
cal domination, with one of them leading to or implying the others (Perroux6,
Thebaud7).
Developed countries have been continuously shifting their modes of domination over underdeveloped ones in response to changing conditions and to
pressure from them. From the control of raw materials extracted from, and
manufactured goods supplied to, the underdeveloped countries, developed
countries gained control of a significant share of the industrial production
facilities through direct investment, and are now gaining control of the
technological know-how required in manufacturing. Such control is acquired
through direct investment and through such means as licensing agreements,
sale of patents, management contracts, and technical assistance agreements.
The primary vehicle through which these various forms of domination are
exerted is the international or multinational corporation. The changing nature
of domination has been explored fully by Furtado8 and Dos Santos.9
Disarticulation means that the underdeveloped country does not constitute
a homogeneous unit from the cultural, economic and social points of view. It
is a highly stratified society with little or no interaction among the various
strata and with almost no mobility between them. As Delgado has shown
for the case of Peru, often some of these strata are more closely related to
developed countries, to large cosmopolitan urban centres, and to foreign
ways of living, than to other strata within the underdeveloped country. As a
result, improvements in socio-economic conditions generally affect only some
segments of the population, leaving the other segments or compartments
comparatively unchanged.
The third characteristic, the incapacity to cover the costs of an adequate
standard of living for the majority of the population, is perhaps the most
striking of the three. The majority of the world population, which is
concentrated in the underdeveloped countries of the Third World, has a
very low and often deteriorating standard of living. Traditional aid and
trade measures appear to be insufficient to improve the social conditions of
the majority of those living in underdeveloped countries. For example, the
Interamerican Development Bank Report on Socioeconomic Progress points
out deficiencies in practically all aspects of living conditions for most countries
in Latin America. Shortages in housing, high infant mortality, low life expectancy, malnutrition, lack of educational opportunities, and high inequalities in income distribution appear to be ‘normal’ for the majority of Latin
Americans. Furthermore, these three characteristics of underdevelopment are
being reinforced rather than overcome.
Economic development, from the point of view of an underdeveloped coun6 Op. cit. note 3.
7 Schiller Thebaud, L’Analyse des Objectifs de la Politique Scientifique des Etats
Occidentaux (Grenoble: Institut Economique et Juridique de l’Energie, Universite de
Grenoble, May 1969).
8 Celso Furtado, Obstacles to Development in Latin America (New York: Anchor
Books, 1970).
9Theotonio Dos Santos, ‘El Nuevo Caracter de la Dependencia’, La Nueva Deben.
dencia (Lima: Moncloa Campondonico Editores, sq68).
4-SS * *
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50
Francisco
R.
Sagasti
try, can be considered a dynamic process of structural change characterized
by three factors: (i) absolute and sustained economic growth, (2) scientific
and technological progress, and (3) social propagation of the effects of (i)
(2) to all sectors of the population (Bravo Bresani and Sagasti).10
The first factor, economic growth, traditionally has been considered as
synonymous with economic development. Although a necessary condition, it
is not sufficient by itself, because economic growth, without technological
progress and the propagation of its effects, does not overcome the conditions
of domination and disarticulation which characterize underdevelopment.
The second factor, technological progress, refers to the autonomous capacity
of a country to generate, disseminate and utilize scientific and technological
knowledge in its productive and social processes. However, such progress does
not imply rejection of technology imported from abroad. Rather it requires
the ability to import, absorb and modify foreign know-how, adapting it to
local conditions and even re-exporting it after further development. Only
through a process of creating its own scientific and technological capacity,
can an underdeveloped country be in a position to counteract the effects of
technological domination. The third and last factor refers to the distribution
of the fruits of economic growth and technological progress to all sectors of
the population. This is equivalent to eliminating the disarticulation which
characterizes underdeveloped countries, distributing the benefits derived from
a development process to the various regions of the country and to all segments
and sectors of its society, so as to raise living conditions of all to at least
minimally acceptable standards.
3. SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RELATION BETWEEN
SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND UNDERDEVELOPMENT
In the past two decades, technology has become increasingly important as
a factor in the relations between developed countries, as well as in the
relations between developed and underdeveloped countries. Technological
progress has been credited with contributing more than any other factor to the
economic growth of developed countries, and until very recently resources
allocated to research and development in advanced countries have heen
growing at an exponential rate. In addition, the technological content of manufactured goods has become a major determinant of the patterns of trade
between developed countries, and also between dexeloped and underdeveloped
countries, as the articles in the book edited by Vernon”I point out.
Most underdeveloped countries, waging a losing battle with the deterioration of the terms of trade, have seen the technological content of their imports
increase steadily. At the same time they have realized that it is becoming more
and more difficult to manufacture goods for export competing with firms
10 Op. cit. note 5.
11 Raymond Vernon (ed.), The Technology Factor in International Trade (New York:
Columbia University Press, 1970).
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Discussion
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51
and countries with vastly superior scientific and technological capabilities
(Prebisch,12 Schiavo-Campo and Singer13).
Many underdeveloped countries have followed the road of import substitution to begin their industrialization (Latin American countries, for example).
In most of these cases each new wave of import substitution generated a
demand for increasingly more complex and advanced capital equipment. Such
equipment was usually provided from abroad, because their incipient scientific
and technological infrastructure had no capacity to provide the know-how
needed in productive activities. These conditions have led to an increasing
dependence on foreign technology, thereby intensifying technological domination. Herrera,14 Halty,15 Sagasti16 and Sanchez Crespo’7 have studied this
phenomenon in detail. Thus in some cases the efforts to begin industrialization
have led to increased technological dependence. Furthermore, as Dos Santos18
emphasizes, rapid advances in science and technology in developed countries
are making technological domination the major form of domination of underdeveloped countries by developed ones in the second half of the twentieth
century.
It has been pointed out, particularly by Thebaud,19 that a country which
does not develop a scientific and technological capacity of its own, will necessarily be technologically dependent and dominated by more advanced countries. Given this situation there is a great risk that its enterprises and other
productive units, forced to acquire know-how from foreign sources (frequently
under unfavourable conditions), may become economically dependent on these
sources and dominated by them. Beyond a certain threshold the political and
cultural independence of the country may be threatened by these forms of
dependence and domination.
Most of the technology available in the world today has been created in the
developed countries. It has been estimated by the Sussex Group that fully
98% of the world’s expenditures on research and development are made by
developed countries. Moreover, the 2% spent by the underdeveloped countries
is often misused, allocated to research tasks of little consequence for develop-
12 Raul Prebisch, Transformacio’n y Desarrollo (Washington DC: Interamerican
Development Bank, 1970).
13 Salvatore Schiavo-Campo and Hans Singer, Perspectives of Economic Developme
(Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1970).
14 Amilcar Herrera, Ciencia y Politica en America Latina (Mexico: Siglo Veintiuno
Editores, 197 1).
15 M’aximo Halty, Produccion, Transferencia y Adaptacion de Tecnologia (Washington
DC: Department of Scientific Affairs, OAS, I970).
16 Francisco Sagasti, Towards a Methodology for Planning Science and Technology
in Underdeveloped Countries. Draft Report presented by The Management and
Behavioral Science Center, University of Pennsylvania, to the Department of Scientific
Affairs of the OAS (Philadelphia, 1972).
17 Alberto Sanchez Crespo, Esbozo del Desarrollo Industrial de America Latina y sus
Principales Implicaciones sobre el Sistema Cientifico y Tecnologia (Washington DC:
Department of Scientific Affairs, OAS, 1970).
18 OP. cit. note 9.
19 Op. cit. note 7.
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52
Francisco
R.
Sagasti
ment, and to research centres with lower productivity than the average in
developed countries.
The research and development activity in developed countries is concentrated in a few large corporations or government backed organizations, as
shown by OECD studies20 and by Cooper and Chesnais.2A These conditions have led to the formation of R & D oligopolies in almost every branch
of economic activity, and particularly in those with high technological intensity.
This concentrates the power to exert technological domination in a rather
limited number of firms in the advanced countries. These firms exert virtual
monopolies over the supply of technology, particularly in their relation to
underdeveloped countries.22 Moreover, the absolute level of the R & D effort
in developed countries is several orders of magnitude larger than that of
the underdeveloped countries,23 and the existence of a cumulative scientific
and technological tradition in the developed countries makes it difficult for
an underdeveloped country, or even a group of them, to reach the levels
of achievement attained by the developed ones in almost every area of science
and technology.
As a consequence, much of the existing stock of scientific and technologic
knowledge is suited to the needs and conditions prevailing in developed coun
tries, which have little in common with those of the underdeveloped on
(technologies that require large amounts of capital, large scale production,
and highly skilled labour provide one example). Needless to say, these hardly
correspond to the situations prevailing in underdeveloped countries.
Furthermore, as the Japanese White Paper on science and technology24
points out, current trends in scientific and technological research will intensify
this divergence. Among the characteristic trends in the development of new
technology, it is possible to identify movements toward more automated plant
equipment using limited but highly skilled labour and towards increases in
the economic scale of productive units. There is also a trend towards the
development of new synthetic materials, which has potentially dangerous im-
plications for underdeveloped countries, because they depend largely on the
export of raw materials and primary commodities for their foreign exchange.
Underdeveloped countries thus face a lack of suitable technological alternatives. Often they are faced with the dilemma of choosing between increasing
industrial output by using modern, generally capital-intensive techniques, or
20 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), The Overall
Level and Structure of R & D Efforts in OECD Member Countries (Paris, 1964).
21 Charles Cooper and Francois Chesnais, ‘La Ciencia y la Tecnologia en la Integracion Europea’, 0. Sunkel (ed.), Integracion Politica y Economica (Santiago de Chile:
Editorial Universitaria, 1970).
22 Constantine Vaitsos, Transfer of Resources and Preservation of Monopoly Ren
Paper presented at the Harvard Development Advisory Service Conference (Dubrovni
1970).
23 Geoffrey Olcham, Paper presented at the Round Table on Transfer of Technolo
Lima, February 197I (Washington DC: Department of Scientific Affairs, OAS, 19
24 Japanese Government, White Paper on Science and Technology: Spanish tran
tion in Comercio Exterior (February 197 I).
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Discussion
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53
forgoing opportunities fo
levels of employment using archaic or obsolete techniques. The lack of viable
and efficient technological alternatives, together with the underdeveloped countries’ low scientific and technological capacities, poses a difficult challenge,
particularly in view of the explosive conditions of population growth, unemployment and under-employment. In some cases the lack of viable alternatives and the ignorance of the buyer of technology in underdeveloped countries
has led to wastage of scarce resources, particularly capital. Heavy investments
have too often been made in plants with capacities vastly exceeding the size of the market. In some cases governments in underdeveloped
countries have encouraged the proliferation of oversize plants for the sake of
achieving ‘competition’ (in accordance with imported conventional economic
wisdom) with the net result of higher costs, inefficiency and dilapidation of
resources.
The capacity for creating technology, or even for absorbing imported technology, is not present in most underdeveloped countries. As a result of the
passive character of their economic growth, their demands for technology
have usually been satisfied from abroad, through the import of equipment
and through technical assistance by foreign technicians. Because foreign technology was readily accessible, little pressure was exerted on the local scientific
community to provide viable technological alternatives, particularly in the
manufacturing industries. Industrialization policies, fostering technological
dependence, have often accentuated the cleavage between the local scientific
community and the technological needs of the country. In consequence underdeveloped countries find themselves incapable of creating and satisfying their
own technological needs and even incapable of selecting and absorbing the
least unsuitable imported technology from the limited range available. Furthermore, as the studies carried out by Vaitsos25 and the Organization of American
States26 show, foreign technologies are more often than not acquired under
very unfavourable conditions which include high implicit and explicit costs,
and restrictions on its use.
Because the productive sectors of the economy exert little pressure on the
local scientific and technological communities, scientists, professionals, and
technicians orient themselves toward the international scientific community,
choosing research topics in fashion, seeking to contribute to the advancement
of science as an international undertaking, and disregarding the research
needs of their countries almost completely. As long as these needs are ignored
by the local scientific communities, they can only retain their identity by
orienting themselves outwards. Thus we find local scientific communities
of many underdeveloped countries alienated from their own environment and
zealously defending freedom of research and the values of universal science
to the detriment of their potential contribution to the development of their
25 Constantine Vaitsos, Strategic Choices in the Commercialization of Technology:
the Point of View of Developing Countries. Mimeograph (July 1970).
26 Organization of American States (OAS), La Transferencia de Tecnologia hacia los
Paises del Grupo Andino (Washington DC, 1972).
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54
Francisco
R.
Sagasti
own countries. The well known phenomena of ‘brain-drain’ is an extreme
manifestation of this alienation.
The international scientific community, erring by omnission rather than
commission, has contributed to increase this alienation. Not enough attention
has been given by scientists to the scientific and technological problems particular to underdeveloped countries. Sachs27 postulates that the Europocentric
character of modern western science has had a retarding effect on the scientific efforts of underdeveloped countries. Estimates by the Sussex Group28
indicate that less than X% of the total research effort in developed
countries, to which the international scientific community is primarily rela
is directly relevant to the problems of underdevelopment, although the amo
may be of the same order of magnitude as the expenditures by underdeveloped
countries themselves. Prestige is conferred on researchers who work on exotic
and sophisticated advanced topics, choice of which is often dictated by scientific fashion or novelty. Most of these have nothing to do with the more
pedestrian scientific and technical problems faced by underdeveloped countries.
The insistence on the international and universal character of the scientific enterprise, the rejection of any types of imposition in the selection of
research topics and areas, and the emphasis on the objectivity of science and
its quest for truth, have all been proposed as characteristics of what Polanyi29
has called the ‘Republic of Science’. These, advocated as indispensable conditions for doing science, have also had some effect on the behaviour of the
scientific community in underdeveloped countries. Any attempt to reorientate
the local scientific effort, gearing it to the needs of the country, is arduously
fought by scientists, who see it as infringing their rights, jeopardizing the
integrity of their undertaking, and tampering with the freedom of research.
Little attention is paid by the advocates of unrestricted scientific freedom to
the implicit guidance of the scientific enterprise in developed countries through
the manipulation of resources available for research. The fact that investments in research soared after the Second World War, primarily in defence,
atomic energy and space, is not taken into account. Scientists, professionals,
and technicians, preoccupied with the freedom to choose their own individual
research topics, are not generally aware of the fact that the broad directions of
scientific progress have been primarily influenced by political, economic and
social considerations.30
It must be emphasized that scientists in underdeveloped countries have
acted in a ‘rational’ way in the process of becoming alienated. Given the
lack of effective demand for their services in their countries and the structure
of the international scientific community, they could not help, if they were
27 Ignacy Sachs, La Decouverte du Tiers Monde (Paris: Flammarion, I971).
28 Sussex Group, Science, Technology and Underdevelopment: the Case for Reform.
Draft introductory statement for the United Nations World Plan of Action on Science
and Technology (Brighton: University of Sussex, 1970).
29 M. Polanyi, ‘The Republic of Science’, E. Shils (ed.), Criteria for Scientific Develop-
ment, Public Policy and National Goals (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, I969).
30 Oscar Varsavsky, Ciencia, Politica y Cientificismo (Buenos Aires: CEAL Editores,
1970).
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Discussion
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55
willing to remain as scientists, but choose research topics sanctioned by the
international scientific community, for which resources were often more freely
available. This is but another instance of the divorce between individual and
collective rationality in underdeveloped countries.
The preceding paragraphs have dwelt on the aspects of the present
organization of scientific and technological activities which do not appear to
contribute to economic development in underdeveloped countries. This was
done primarily because the literature on this subject has emphasized the
positive contributions of science and technology to development. This optimistic view must be tempered by the realization that the science and technology
of developed nations is not, in the main, the kind that is required in underdeveloped countries; the part that is required is not usually available under
favourable conditions, and if it is, there is often a lack of competence to use it.
This is not to deny that science and technology can and will contribute to
development. Only latter day Luddites would refuse to recognize their potential contribution. During the Second World War Britain and the allied countries which considered themselves in a state of emergency and enlisted the help
of the majority of their scientists, made an unprecedented effort to utilize
science and technology. This showed what it is possible to achieve in a relatively short period of time if an all-out concerted effort is made. There is no
apparent reason why a similar mobilization to tackle the problems of underdevelopment would not produce equally spectacular results.
To summarize, science and technology have the potential to contribute,
perhaps more than any other single factor, to overcoming the conditions of
underdevelopment. However, the present structures of scientific and technological activities in both developed and underdeveloped countries are such
that this potential is not being fully realized. Rather, they appear to reinforce,
at least partially, the conditions of underdevelopment.
4. CONDITIONS FOR MAKING EFFECTIVE THE POTENTIAL
CONTRIBUTION OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
TO DEVELOPMENT
From the preceding analysis it follows that, if science and technology are to
contribute to the development of the Third World, there must be a major
transformation in the structure of the world scientific and technological effort.
The necessary changes, which require a firm commitment both by developed
and underdeveloped countries, can be grouped into three categories:
(a) Modifications in the international division of labour and the orientation
of scientific and technological activities at the world level.
(b) Generation of local scientific and technological capabilities in underdeveloped countries.
(c) Full incorporation of science and technology within the scope of development planning efforts.
I shall discuss these in turn.
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56
Francisco
R.
Sagasti
The first group of changes would include measures to ensure that a larger
portion of world expenditures in research and development is allocated to
projects relevant to underdevelopment. The Sussex Group3′ and the United
Nations32 have suggested targets for the percentage of research and development expenditures by developed countries that should be devoted to the
problems of underdeveloped countries (figures around I-2 % have been
mentioned), and for the percentage of total aid from developed to underdeveloped countries that should be oriented towards the generation of local
scientific and technological capabilities.33
These proposals involve primarily bilateral forms of ‘science and technology
aid’. On their own they are not likely to have a major effect on the nature
and distribution of world expenditures on science and technology. At best they
would succeed in improving research and development in specific fields for
some underdeveloped countries. At worst they would make the development
of local scientific and technological capabilities more dependent on specific
foreign sources.
Another proposal along this line seeks to establish multilateral ‘Research
and Development Funds’ at the world and/or regional levels. These funds
would operate with their own independent and stable financial sources, which
could be provided by special taxes or duties on activities that are realized at
the world level (for example, Sachs34 has suggested that programmes to control
sea pollution be financed with taxes levied on ships operating in international
waters). Voluntary contributions made by underdeveloped countries and
matched by developed countries could provide additional funds, but not replace an independent and stable source of money. However, the availability
Of funds per se does not constitute a guarantee that the science and technology
financed with them will have an impact on the development of the Third
World. If these funds were administered by scientists from underdeveloped
countries alienated from their own environment, and/or scientists from
developed countries who are not aware of the complex interrelations between
science, technology and underdevelopment, the distortions found at present
in the world scientific and technological effort would probably be reinforced.
Changes at the international level should also include increased co-operation
between underdeveloped countries in matters related to science and technology.
Eventually, more intensive collaboration may pave the road for effective
scientific and technological integration. However, experience has shown that
co-operation agreements are relatively easy to reach when issues of a purely
scientific nature are involved, but when co-operation or integration programmes involve research activities that may have direct economic application
31 Op. cit. note 28.
32 United Nations, Science and Technology for Development, Summary of the World
Plan of Action on Science and Technology for the UN Second Development Decade
(New York, 1971).
33 At present it appears that Canada, through its International Development Research
Center, is effectively moving in the direction of making science and technology a significant component of its aid programme.
34 Personal communication.
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Discussion
Paper
57
-which could benefit a particular country or even a particular enterpriseagreement is much more difficult to obtain. In consequence, scientific and
technological integration among underdeveloped countries is likely to be
achieved only in conjunction with economic and political integration.
There is also a need for establishing a pressure group that would act on
the international scientific community, motivating scientists to become involved
in projects of potential or direct benefit to underdeveloped countries. In the
face of increased East-West dialogue (and maybe even agreement on nuclear
matters) this could be a task for the Pugwash movement. A new generation of
scientists-activists who would take the banner of science and technology for
the development of the Third World could inject a new sense of purpose
into Pugwash. Failing this, it would be necessary to organize a new pressure
group, perhaps within the framework of institutions such as UNCTAD’s
Group of 77, to press these issues before the international scientific comm
The list of possible actions at the international level could be expanded
to include the introduction of a ‘technological dimension’ in the evaluation
of projects financed by international development banks or agencies, the
establishment of mechanisms to award prestige to scientists working on problems related to development (a Nobel prize has once been suggested), and the
introduction of a ‘development merit’ criterion for evaluating proposed research projects (following Weinberg’s approach to scientific choice).35
The second group of changes requires action at the country level. In consequence these changes must be tailored to the particularities of a given national
situation. Underdeveloped countries are not a homogeneous lot and specific
proposals to improve scientific and technological capabilities must take into
account differences in size, resources, levels of modernization, cultural patterns
and many other factors of similar nature. Nevertheless, it is possible to identify
some actions that are necessary for the development of a local capacity for
doing science and technology.
First, it is necessary that long-term objectives be clearly formulated, defining
the ‘style’ of science and technology that the country is seeking to develop,
and its relation to the overall economic and social development strategy.
Second, the interactions between science and technology and the economic,
educational, political and cultural environment of the country must be considered. The environment affects both the demand for knowledge generated
by scientific and technological activities and the possibilities for producing it
locally. In particular, the characteristics of the economic system and of many
government economic policies contain an array of implicit science policieswhich are perhaps more important than explicit policies-and which frequently
run against the objectives of scientific and technological development. For
example, the implicit science policy contained in the import-substituting
industrialization of many Latin American countries has often reinforced technological dependence. Identifying these contradictions and exposing these
conflicts is of primary importance for scientific and technological development.
35 Alvin Weinberg, ‘Criteria for Scientific Choice’, op. cit. note 29.
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58
Francisco
R.
Sagasti
As long as negative implicit policies remain hidden, it will be impossible to
remove the obstacles that prevent scientific and technological development.
The development of a local institutional infrastructure for science and technology is a third aspect that must be covered. Institutions are the means
through which resources are channelled to scientific and technological activities. A wide and well-organized base of institutions constitutes a necessary con-
dition for attaining an acceptable level of scientific and technological developmerit.
Underdeveloped countries cannot expect to excel in all fields of science
and technology. Therefore, a fourth aspect to consider is the need for a
strategy of specialization to be followed by the generation of a local capacity
for science and technology.36 This implies a choice of domains
in which the underdeveloped country would become an advanced centre of
knowledge and to which resources would be allocated with priority. In other
fields or domains technology could be imported, although it would be necessary to exert control on these imports to avoid the negative effects that often
accompany them. However, this strategy does not imply abandoning the
support that fundamental science is required to provide; for example a base
of scientific activity and qualified manpower for science and technology.37
A balance must be achieved between the concentration of resources in some
domains and the general support that fundamental science must receive.
The last aspect to consider refers to the availability of resources for science
and technology. Human, financial and physical resources must be provided
beyond the minimum critical mass, particularly in the domains chosen by the
underdeveloped country for specialization. The human resources base for
science and technology in underdeveloped countries is rather limited, and
probably constitutes the main bottleneck for scientific and technological
development. To overcome this limitation it is necessary to implement measures
that would produce results in the short-term, such as programmes to repatriate
qualified personnel working abroad; in the medium term, such as programmes
to expose professionals and scientists to advances in modern science and technology; and also in the long term, such as changes in the educational system.
Financial and physical resources muist also be increased, although there appears
to be a greater need for a more rational use of existing funds and facilities
for science and technology.
The third group of changes is oriented towards making science and tech-
nology an integral part of development planning. The first task consists in
making planners and politicians aware of the role that science and technology
play in the development process, emphasizing that technological domination
reinforces underdevelopment. It is also necessary to show them that development plans and policies often contain negative implicit policies for science
and technology, which make development efforts self-defeating in the long
run.
36 Robert Gilpin, ‘Technological Strategies and National Purpose’, Science, 169
(31 July 1970), 441-8.
37 Simon Rottenberg, ‘The Warrants for Basic Research’, op. cit. note 29.
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Discussion
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59
The concern for scientific and technological policy-making and planning
is of relatively recent origin. As a consequence, there are no proven and
accepted methods and criteria that could be recommended and applied with
confidence.38 Therefore, another task of high priority is the development of,
and experimentation with, procedures for scientific and technological policymaking and planning. The scientific method itself should be brought to bear
in planning the development of science and technology.
The awareness by planners and politicians of the importance of science
and technology for development, and the availability of adequate methods
for scientific and technological planning, would combine to legitimize the
incorporation of science and technology within the scope of overall development planning efforts.
5. CONCLUSION
This paper has presented a brief review of the interrelations betwee
technology and underdevelopment, and of the issues involved in realizing the
potential contribution of science and technology to the development of the
Third World. Beginning with a definition of underdevelopment and a conceptualization of the development process, it was possible to show the need
for major changes in the structure of the world scientific and technological
effort. Proposals for action remained at a relatively high level of generality
and were offered as an outline to be explored in further detail in a concrete
setting.
The three groups of changes described in section four amount to a radical
transformation of the world scientific and technological effort. On the basis
of past history, it is highly improbable that these changes will come about
automatically. If they are realized, they will be the result of purposeful action
by those who stand to gain from them. Therefore, this transformation must
be pressed and started by the underdeveloped countries themselves.
However, it is rather unlikely that individual country efforts to modify the
international division of labour in science and technology, as well as the norms
that regulate the behaviour of the international scientific community, will
bear fruit in the short and medium terms. In consequence, underdeveloped
countries should begin by organizing their own limited efforts, by augmenting
their own capacity for doing science and technology, and by joining forces
to initiate the transformation. In the last analysis, this is the only way in
which the future of underdeveloped countries will be in their own hands.
38 Reviews of available planning methods for science and technology can be found
in: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Analytical
Methods in Government Science Policy (Paris, 1970) and Francisco Sagasti, A Review
and Critique of Approaches and Methods Proposed for Scientific and Technological
Planning (Washington DC: Department of Scientific Affairs, OAS, 1970).
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