Case Study: Disorders of Visual Function; Disorders of Hepatobiliary and Exocrine Pancreas Function.Due: Tuesday, November 10 at 11:59 PM
Case Study, Disorders of Visual Function
Phil is a 54-year-old with type 2 diabetes. After he was initially diagnosed with the
condition, his physician referred him to an ophthalmologist for a comprehensive eye
examination. Phil had been struggling with the lifestyle changes he was required to
make. He was able to return to a healthy weight with physical exercise and dietary
changes, but he worked long hours and ate poorly when on business trips. Phil
missed his second annual checkup with his ophthalmologist because of such a trip.
When he finally made it in, she examined him and stated there was now evidence
of small retinal hemorrhages and cotton-wool exudates. She emphasized his need
to reduce his hypertension and hyperlipidemia and wrote up a report for his
physician (Learning Objectives 13, 15, and 17).
1. How do visual disturbances arise from background and proliferative
2. How might blindness occur with a prolonged detached retina? Explain using
your knowledge of pathophysiology.
3. What are the similarities and differences between traction retinal detachment
and rhegmatogenous detachment?
Case Study, Disorders of Hepatobiliary and Exocrine Pancreas
Robert is a 68-year-old who has dealt with alcoholism for over 30 years. He has
cirrhosis and is anemic. His appetite has declined, and he regularly complains of
abdominal pain. Recently, while preparing himself a sandwich, he cut his finger
deeply with a knife. The wound bled profusely, and he used a kitchen towel to stop
the flow. Refusing to go and seek medical assistance, he put ice on his finger and
wrapped the towel around it. He sat down in his recliner with his hand over his
head and fell asleep (Learning Objectives 3, 5, and 8).
1. Anemia and clotting disorders are common features of alcoholic liver disease.
What are the mechanisms that cause these hematologic disorders?
2. What gastrointestinal bleed is associated with a high mortality rate in those
with advanced cirrhosis? What is the pathophysiology of this condition?
3. Acute pancreatitis is sometimes seen in the alcoholics, particularly after
binge drinking. Why are tachycardia and hypotension indications of this
4. Why are women more predisposed to alcoholic liver disease than men?

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