Please refer to the Media Dissertation Plan.docx.Required to have 25 to 30 Literature reviews on cyberbullying which includes the following:Mass communication theory and media theory Like how people are being influenced by the mediaHow media navigate themMedia played a role in influencing the way they think and bully others on social media.Psychology 2 or 3 psychology impacts people getting bullied and they become depressed, suicidal, etc. US federal law What the federal government is doing to curb the cyberbullying Other papers are written by other people on the topic.Structure of the dissertation:Introduction (1000 words)Theory/Scholarship Chapter (2000 words)Case study 1 (2000 words)Case study 2 (2000 words)Compare and contrast on Case study 1 and 2 (1000 words)Conclusion (1000 words)I also required to have updates on everything and sent to me every 5 days. As I need to update my supervisor if we are on the right track and I will update you again.Thinking Critically
Assessing arguments (yours/others’) – ask:
• Alternative explanation for [x]?
• Reasons/evidence sufficient?
• What assumptions do reasons rest on (bias)?
• Logical fallacies?
• (False) generalizations
• Jumps in logic
Thinking Critically
Argue, not describe
• “So what?”
• Why important?
• Link to existent ideas?
• What learn re: ideas/objects/field/society?
Theory/Scholarship
Free to disagree
• Reflect on why
• Prove (evidence)
• Scholarship will help:
• “I do not agree with [x]: I am more inclined to agree with [y] who critiques [x]
for [these reasons], and [z] who instead proposes [these alternative ideas]”
→ “Theory/Scholarship” chapter
Theory/Scholarship Chapter
Aims:
• Demonstrate familiarity with topic


Know the most relevant thinkers/themes
Set-up main ideas you draw on when analysing case studies
Theory/Scholarship Chapter
Contextualise/critically evaluate:
“[V] challenges [idea (a)]. A similar approach is taken by [W], who also
introduces [idea (b)]. Both authors contribute to what has been
traditionally a relatively small area within studies on [your field].
However, these debates have gained much greater attention recently.
For example, see [X, Y and Z].”
• Establish history & relevance
• Critically evaluate contributions to main debates
Theory/Scholarship Chapter
Introduce the ideas you will use in analysis
& Ideas you reject
Not just descriptive list
• Interject: establish your position
• Outline how issues relevant to your dissertation
Your Theory/Scholarship chapter is like an essay that analyses
scholarship instead of objects
Theory/Scholarship Chapter
In sum, aims to:
• Rationalise project: shows why topic is important/needs researching
• Demonstrate you have researched & understood topic
• Briefly outline key scholarly issues in area, introduce terminology
• Outline ideas you use in case study analysis
Theory/Scholarship Chapter
While writing, make sure you:
• Explain the ideas (assume reader has not read same sources)
• Assert your position – which views accept/reject (& why)
Theory/Scholarship Chapter
Annotated example (eLP)
• Position my study referring to scholarship
• State my position on debates
• Establish ideas for case study analysis
• Flag tensions & gaps to explore
Also: see example dissertations on the eLP
Theory/Scholarship Chapter: FAQs
Do I mention all the books/articles from my
bibliography in my Theory/Scholarship chapter?
• No, you can use other sources in your chapters
Can I use ideas and quotations from the sources I
have cited in my Theory/Scholarship chapter
elsewhere in my dissertation?
• Yes
Theory/Scholarship Chapter: FAQs
Will my Theory/Scholarship chapter contain quotes?
Can I paraphrase? Do I have to cite my sources?
• Theory/Scholarship chapters usually contain a
combination of quotes and paraphrasing. Every
source and idea that is not yours must be cited
(whether quoting or paraphrasing)
Should I discuss my case study examples in the
Theory/Scholarship chapter?
• Not in any detail: save those points for the case
study chapters
Theory/Scholarship Chapter: FAQs
Does my Theory/Scholarship chapter contribute to
my word count
• Yes
Should I use sub-headings in my Theory/Scholarship
chapter?
• I would advise against using sub-headings within in
dissertation chapters, but you may find it helpful to
think in “blocks”
Beyond Theory/Scholarship Chapter
Never finish reading (too much material)
• Eventually: move on
→Applying ideas
What are Case Studies?
E.g. topic: viral marketing
• If case study = ‘viral marketing’ → lack focus/flit
• Case studies: one or two key examples of viral campaigns to analyse
• Examples to demonstrate your argument
• Prove/challenge established ideas
Case Studies
Must be:
1) Appropriate to the ideas established in the Theory/Scholarship
chapter
• i.e. cohesive whole
2) Viable
• E.g. Big Brother
Structure
Once clarify
• Objectives (research questions – lecture 2)
• Key ideas (Theory/Scholarship Chapter)
• Case studies
→ formulate structure
Marking
1) Effort:
• Level/manner topic handled
• Work done vs. could have been
• Read enough?
Marking
2) Theoretical Grasp:
[Recap: Theory: anti- description
• compare history/synopsis = no angle/argument]
• Understanding of issues vs. what topic requires/other work in area?
• Engaged with crucial ideas re: your topic
• E.g. female body image, no feminism?
→ Unfamiliar
Marking
3) Critical Ability:
• Independent critical thinking demonstrated vs. opportunity
• Depth, synthesise ideas
• Need to critically assess
• What dis/agree with and why
• Evidence (scholarship/case studies)
Writing: clear and sophisticated
• Convey meaning
• Understand/explain idea and terms
Marking
4) Presentation:
• Structure: organised?
• If illustrations: well-selected?
• Accurate citations/bibliography

Show off research work
• Proofread/formatting
• Word length: 8000-10000 (min. – max.)
• Well-argued and perceptive
• Use evidence (examples and secondary literature) to
support the argument throughout
• Clear structure, guide the reader throughout
• Focused argument based on precisely defined aims,
leading to well substantiated conclusions
• Synthesise scholarly work with analysis
• Evaluate the evidence: focused critical analysis of the
examples used
• Display independent thought
• Demonstrate a strong understanding of the subject area in
which the dissertation is based, offering in-depth
engagement with appropriate scholarship and ideas in the
field
• Well-written (clear, formal, technically accurate)
• Accurate referencing, clean presentation, consistent
formatting throughout
Marking Process
Each double-marked:
• Plus: selection external marker
Keep second marker in mind:
• First marker knows your meaning (discussed)
• Document must convey meaning/show working
Chapter Drafts
Supervisor: verbal feedback re: plans
• Structure
• Too much/little
• Relevance
Structure
• Intro: topic context, aims, trajectory
• Main body: argument and evidence
• Conclusion: underline main ideas → next chapter
Chapters: Main Body
• Follow structure in intro: feeling purposeful
Each paragraph:
• Introduce critical point before example
• If feels broad, cite evidence
• Analyse example:
• Significance? Guide reader
• Refer to ch. argument
→Next point
• Specific advice ➔ supervisor
Dissertation Introduction
Start here?
• Correlate  finished content
• Outline: Issues, aims, trajectory
• Purpose: prep readers
Organising Yourself
Aim: complete draft well before hand-in Complete draft → editing
• See whole: rethink/rewrite
• Link chapters
• May find:
• Jumps/gaps (from edits)
• Phrasing unclear
• Repetition
Academic Writing Style – Paragraphs
Single sentences not complete paragraph
Academic Writing Style – Vocabulary
• Understand terminology
• Vary (non-technical) words
• Thesaurus? Check synonym = correct
Academic Writing Style – Pronouns
Personal pronouns
• I/me/we/us – personal preference (check supervisor)
• One – safest
• You – Never use
Avoidance:
e.g. ‘On examining the game, I found that…‘ →
‘On examining the game, it is apparent that…’.
Academic Writing Style – Pronouns
Problem: ‘I’ weak: e.g.
• ‘I learned that racial stereotypes are still prevalent’
• ‘To me, racial stereotypes are problematic’
Versus
• ‘Racial stereotypes are still prevalent’
• ‘Racial stereotypes are problematic’
• Focus on what reader gleans
• Evidence claims
Academic Writing Style – Phrasing
• Avoid generalisation
• “Action films are very popular”
• “Men enjoy action films”
• Qualify/evidence
• E.g. “The Expendables grossed [x] in its opening weekend and remained at
the top of the US box office for [x] weeks [source], demonstrating that the
action film remains a popular among American audiences”
Academic Writing Style – Phrasing
• Avoid absolutes (always, never, none)
• Alternatives




Seems
Implies
Suggests
Appears
Academic Writing Style – Phrasing
Avoid:
• Poor grammar
• Abbreviations (including ‘etc’, ‘e.g.’)
• Imprecision
• Value judgements
Academic Writing Style – Phrasing
• Past tense: to specify events happened/over
• Present tense: matters in hand
• “However, Figure 1 shows …”
• “Bourdieu proposes that ‘taste classifies…’”
Academic Writing Style – Phrasing
• Avoid over-long sentences
• If break → reconstruct:
• Avoid incomplete clauses
• “The cat sat on the mat, then was sick”
• “The cat sat on the mat. Then was sick”
• “The cat sat on the mat. Subsequently, the cat was sick”
Condensing text
• If exceed word count
• If points lost: “waffle”
• Look for:




Irrelevant/tangential
Lengthy, wordy
Repetition
Excessive examples
Condensing text
Trim long quotes
“The media select items for attention and provide rankings of what is and is
not important – in other words, they ‘set an agenda’ for public opinion”
→ “The media select items for attention and … ‘set an agenda’ for public
opinion”
Condensing text
Rephrase sentences
“By no means does this study exist in isolation. Many other case study
examples could have been used to illustrate the same argument.
Representations of equality and inequality are widely disseminated in popular
media, and so a multitude of other portrayals of gender could have been
chosen for analysis in this dissertation. However, the research I have
conducted and presented within this dissertation was necessarily limited to
examples taken from a small number of publications. Within those specific
case study publications, I found ample evidence that stereotypical
representations of gender continue to exist. Moreover, these stereotypes
dominate. Therefore, my study provides some evidence that mainstream
media outlets do continue to play a part in transmitting many outmoded
ideologies regarding gender.” (120 words)
Condensing text
Rephrase sentences
→ “Other cases could be analysed, and many may represent gender equality.
However, the representations examined in this dissertation support gendered
stereotypes, and illustrate the media’s role in propagating outmoded
ideologies.” (30 words)
Quotes
Indent quotations of 30+ words:
There have been a number of authors who argue that new media have
a negative impact on emotional ties, for example Barry Shitpeas (2011:
12) argues:
The lack of personal contact blablabla bla bla bla bla blablabla bla blabla
blablabla bla bla bla blablabla bla bla blablabla bla bla bla blabla bla bla bla
bla bla.
On the other hand, Philomena Cunk (2005: 35) offers the example of
“children learning communication skills in the online environment.”
Quotes
Indent quotations of 30& words:
There have been a number of authors who argue that new media have
a negative impact on emotional ties, for example Barry Shitpeas
argues:
The lack of personal contact blablabla bla bla bla bla blablabla bla blabla
blablabla bla bla bla blablabla bla bla blablabla bla bla bla blabla bla bla bla
bla bla. (2011: 12)
On the other hand, Philomena Cunk offers the example of “children
learning communication skills in the online environment” (2005: 35).
Quotes
• Quoting: all words that are not yours – “in quote marks”

Supply in-text citation in the format (Dworkin, 1989: 3).
• Paraphrasing: use your own words (no quotation marks)

Supply an in-text citation in the format (Dworkin, 1989: 3).
• Do not italicise quotes or author names (just italicise
book/journal/newspaper/film titles)
Avoid quote dropping: lead-in, interject
As Jones stipulates, “use a lead-in” (Jones, 2018: 1). [→ interject]
Not just:
“[U]se a lead-in” (Jones, 2018: 1)
In-text Citing
Include page number (quoting or paraphrasing)
Exception: referring to whole text
e.g. 1:
Some feminists have taken an anti-porn position (see, for example,
Dworkin, 1981)
• [not: (Dworkin, 1981: 1-322)]
e.g. 2: specific aspect
• Dworkin refers to the case of Linda Lovelace in support of her antiporn position (Dworkin, 1981: 23)
In-text Citing
Example: several references to same author in single paragraph, some
quotes, some paraphrase
• Aim: clarify what is taken from author/what is yours
– citations and lead-ins
e.g. →
Example
Many authors have observed that depictions of strong women have
become increasingly common in contemporary cinema since the late
1970s. Inness (1999) suggests that the trend began with Ellen Ripley of
Alien (1979). This depiction was problematic because Ripley (played by
Sigourney Weaver) was more stereotypically masculine
than
feminine. “Only by moving away from the displays of emotion that are
usually considered ‘normal’ for women will she be able to become a
tough hero”. However, Ripley’s soft feminine side is also displayed
when she undresses in the film’s climax: by exposing her
unambiguously womanly body, her femininity is concretised.
Problem 1
Many authors have observed that depictions of strong women have become
increasingly common in contemporary cinema since the late 1970s.
Broad: Proof?
Inness (1999) suggests that the trend began with Ellen Ripley of Alien (1979).
Connect:
For example, Inness (1999) suggests that the trend began with Ellen Ripley of
Alien (1979).
Problem 2
This depiction was problematic because Ripley (played by Sigourney Weaver)
was more stereotypically masculine than feminine.
Uncited paraphrase
Lead-in and cite:
Inness notes that this depiction was problematic because Ripley (played by
Sigourney Weaver) was more stereotypically masculine than feminine (1999:
106).
Problem 3
“Only by moving away from the displays of emotion that are usually
considered ‘normal’ for women will she be able to become a tough hero”.
Uncited drop-in quote
Lead-in and cite:
As Inness explains, “only by moving away from the displays of emotion that
are usually considered ‘normal’ for women will she be able to become a tough
hero” (1999: 106)
Problem 4
Inness notes that this depiction was problematic because Ripley (played by
Sigourney Weaver) was more stereotypically masculine than feminine (1999:
106). As Inness explains, “only by moving away from the displays of emotion
that are usually considered ‘normal’ for women will she be able to become a
tough hero” (1999: 106).
Double identical citation
Not incorrect, clumsy. If in doubt: leave both (safe)
Solutions…
Problem 4
a)
Inness notes that this depiction was problematic because Ripley
(played by Sigourney Weaver) was more stereotypically masculine
than feminine (1999: 106). As Inness explains, “only by moving
away from the displays of emotion that are usually considered
‘normal’ for women will she be able to become a tough hero”
(ibid).
b)
Inness notes that this depiction was problematic because Ripley
(played by Sigourney Weaver) was more stereotypically masculine
than feminine. As Inness explains, “only by moving away from the
displays of emotion that are usually considered ‘normal’ for
women will she be able to become a tough hero” (1999: 106).
Problem 4
• NB: if anything (own opinion, another author) between paraphrase
and quote here, cite in full both times
• If paragraph split, cite in full both times
Finished Paragraph
Many authors have observed that depictions of strong women have
become increasingly common in contemporary cinema since the late
1970s. For example, Inness (1999) suggests that the trend began with
Ellen Ripley of Alien (1979). Inness notes that this depiction was
problematic because Ripley (played by Sigourney Weaver) was more
stereotypically masculine than feminine. As Inness explains, “only by
moving away from the displays of emotion that are usually considered
‘normal’ for women will she be able to become a tough hero” (1999:
106). However, Ripley’s soft feminine side is also displayed when she
undresses in the film’s climax: by exposing her unambiguously
womanly body, her femininity is concretised.
= Original point
Bibliography
Different to in-text citation
e.g.
• Dworkin, Andrea (1989) Pornography: Men Possessing Women.
London: E. P. Dutton.
Bibliography
• List all sources cited (no others)
• Include books, articles, databases, statistical data, websites, films
• Alphabetical order
• Consistent format, font, spacing
• Page numbers: indicate chapter or article span only
• E.g. Smithies, Declan (2012) “The Mental Lives of Zombies”, Philosophical
Perspectives 26:1, 343-372.
FAQ
Multi-author books or articles: do I cite all of them or just the main
author?
• In bibliography: list them all.
• In-text citations:
• Two or three authors, list them all (Smith and Jones, 2008: 24) or (Green,
Brown, and Jenkins, 2012: 24)
• More than three, just list first, followed by ‘et al’; (Jones et al, 2008: 24)
FAQ
Cite online articles (e.g. news articles)?
If scholarly journal/book, cite as hard copy
If non-scholarly:
If author known:
• Bibliography:
Flood, Alison (2012) “Fifty Shades of Grey voted
the most popular book of 2012”. The Guardian
[online] Available at:
http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/dec/26/fif
ty-shades-grey-most-popular-book [Accessed: 11
Feb 2013].
• In-text: (Flood, 2012)
FAQ
b) If author not known: Publication title
•Bibliography:
Belfast Telegraph (2013) “How is EL James’s
erotic novel Fifty Shades of Grey faring with
local women?”. [online] Available at:
http://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/woman/lif
e/how-is-el-jamess-erotic-novel-fifty-shadesof-grey-faring-with-local-women28785632.html [Accessed: 11 Feb 2013].
•In-text: (Belfast Telegraph, 2013)
FAQ
If multiple articles by same author in same year?
In bibliography
• Tookey, Chris (2008a) “Not Bad, But a Bit Weedy for My Liking” Daily Mail, August 29th.
• Tookey, Chris (2008b) “A Great Movie (If You can Stomach It)” Daily Mail, September
12th.
• In text:
• (Tookey, 2008a) and (Tookey, 2008b)
Proofing
Leave time: editing/re-writing
• Errors: distraccting
• Proofread carefully (grammar/typos)
No campus service (no regulations governing service)
• Group/peer proofing?
Illustrations
e.g. photos, screengrabs, graphs
Can use: no copyright
• Aim: clarify points (not “decoration”)
• Caption below (explain image)/corresponding note in text
Appendix
Alternative: images in appendix (caption)
• Useful: larger images (e.g. whole magazine articles)
• Less disruptive
• Most: no need for appendices
Also do not need
• Abstract
• Ethics statement
• Acknowledgements
Individual Chapters
• Each chapter should have title
• E.g. “Chapter 3: Teenagers and Social Networking Media”
• Avoid subheadings within chapters
• Chapters short → fragmented
Dissertation Title
• Not usually question
• Concise/‘punchy’ – topic/concepts/object
• Often two parts, e.g. “Journalism in the New Media Age: The Case of
Twitter”
FAQ
Do I need to include a contents page?
• You can, but it is not vital
• Useful if you have appendices
If I use subheadings, shall I include them in my contents page?
• No, just the main chapter titles
FAQ
Do I need to include a separate methodology chapter?
• For most desk-based projects, include in introduction
• Why have you chosen the sources you have?
• Any issues with accessing what might seem like “obvious”
ideas/examples?
• If your case studies to not look compatible, justify here
Word Count
Word count includes:
• Everything except bibliography and appendices (no extra discursive material)
So, word count includes:
• Title page
• Contents page (if you include one)
• All footnotes/endnotes (if you have any)
• All citations
• All titles
• Captions below images
Questions
• How long should our introductions be? What should be included in
the introduction e.g. Should it include an overview of what is to be
discussed in each chapter?
• When referring to media texts (e.g. movies), do we need to put the
full title in italics throughout? For example, if repeatedly using Star
Trek, do I need to write the title in full and in italics every time, or is it
acceptable to abbreviate to ‘ST’?
Questions
Alternatives for “I think that…”
• It could be argued that… (need to indicate whether that is what you
are arguing)
• It is clear that…
• This comparison demonstrates that…
• The sequence evinces that…
• One position on the matter is that…
• This example suggests that…
• This evidence supports the contention that…
1
Contents
1. Title. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2
2. Main research question ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2
3. A statement of your methodology…………………………………………………………………………………………. 2
4. Proposed chapter headings …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
Theory/Scholarship …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
Case Study One ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
Case Study Two …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
Comparison and Contrast of Case Study One and Two ……………………………………………………………. 5
Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5
5. Critical bibliography …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6
References …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
Ethics Form ………………………………………………………………………………. Error! Bookmark not defined.
2
1. Title.
Regulating the use of Social Media in Cyberbullying.
2. Main research question
The study’s key focus is to investigate ways to curb the use of social media platforms in
cyberbullying. The researcher will seek to answer the main research question, “how can the
use of social media for cyberbullying be regulated.” Data collected in the study will be aimed
at answering the main research question. The “who” affected by the research phenomenon are
social media organizations, social media users, governments, and cyberbullies. The “what”
that is the focus of the study is cyberbullying. The “where” is social media, and the “when” is
every time the platforms are used for cyberbullying.
3. A statement of your methodology
The study will involve secondary engagement with scholarship and the primary analysis of
specific objects. Qualitative and quantitative data will be necessary for understanding the
problem and answering the posed research question. Secondary data will be acquired through
the analysis of relevant scholarly articles on the subject. Relevant research articles are those
that cover the issue of the use of social media platforms for cyberbullying and regulation of
cyberbullying in social media. The relevant research articles will be sourced from peerreviewed journals. The secondary data will be collected and analysed by the researchers. Data
and information gained from secondary engagement with the scholarship will be presented in
the “Theory/Scholarship topic.” The secondary engagement with the scholarship will help
identify gaps that exist in regulating cyberbullying in social media.
The primary analysis of particular objects will be critical to the answering of the research
question. The selected research design for the proposed study is the case study design. The
case study design is a research approach that is aimed at gaining an in-depth analysis of a
complex issue in its real-life context through the analysis of specific cases (Thomas, 2015).
The particular objects that will be analysed to help answer the research questions will be
gathered from two case studies. The two case studies will be two news articles covering the
topic of policies adopted to regulate social media use in cyberbullying. The two cases will be
sourced and analysed by the researchers. The data from each case study and the analysis from
the same will be discussed in separate chapters. A qualitative method of data analysis will be
3
used to analyse data from the two cases. Qualitative data analysis will be employed as the
two cases’ data will be presented in qualitative form. The qualitative analysis method that will
be employed to analyse data from the two cases is content analysis. Content analysis involves
the systematic observation or reading of a text or other data sources to identify the
meaningful piece of content (Bengtsson, 2016). The meaningful content will help answer the
research question.
4. Proposed chapter headings
Introduction
The introduction chapter will involve the description of the topic of study and why the study
is necessary. The topic of this study is the regulation of cyberbullying perpetrated via social
media. The study is necessary as cyberbullying can have detrimental effects on the victims of
the same. The detrimental effects include depression and other mental health issues and
suicide (Nixon, 2014). Some states in the United States (U.S.) have criminalized
cyberbullying due to the detrimental effects that it has on victims of the same (Dasgupta,
2019). The introduction chapter will be divided into several sub-topics. The several subtopics include background, problem statement, the purpose of the study, research questions,
theoretical framework, significance of the study, and the summary.
The background sub-topic will include background information involving the topic. The
background information includes the extent of cyberbullying and the effects of the same. The
problem statement sub-topic will involve the definition of the research problem. The purpose
statement will involve the discussion of the aim of the study. The main research question will
be under the research question, sub-topic. The theoretical framework section of the
introduction chapter will include a relevant theory that will guide the study. The significance
of the study sub-topic will discuss why the answering of the main research question is
important. The summary sub-topic will involve the summarization of the main points
addressed in the introduction chapter.
Theory/Scholarship
The theory/scholarship chapter will involve a further discussion of the theoretical framework
that will guide the study and relevant scholarly materials that will help better understand the
problem and identify gaps that exist in addressing the problem. The theory selected to guide
the study is the Barlett Gentile cyberbullying model (BGCM). The BGCM posits a learning-
4
based psychological explanation regarding cyberbullying perpetration (Barlett &
Kowalewski, 2019). The first premise of the theory is that early cyberbullying leads the
cyberbully to develop the perception that they are anonymous and that their muscularity is
irrelevant online (Barlett & Kowalewski, 2019). The second premise is that the two
perceptions lead the cyberbully to view cyberbullying positively, and the attitude predicts
further perpetuation of cyberbullying. The final premise of the theory states that further
perpetuation of cyberbullying leads to strengthening the anonymity and irrelevance of one’s
muscularity online perceptions (Barlett & Kowalewski, 2019). By providing a theory for
cyberbullying perpetration, the BGCM emphasizes the need for the regulation of
cyberbullying perpetration on social media. Deterring cyberbullying effectively will aid
prevent people from developing perceptions that will lead them to perpetrate further
cyberbullying.
The discussion of research findings regarding the research topic will be an important part of
the topic. Some of the issues addressed in the background sub-topic in the introduction
chapter will be addressed in greater depth in the scholarship section of the chapter. Only peerreviewed scholarly articles relevant to the topic will be discussed in this section. The peerreviewed research articles will be searched in major academic databases like Google Scholar
search engine, which aids search scholarly material easily. Keywords will be used to search
for relevant scholarly articles. Some of the keywords that will be used to search relevant
research articles are “cyberbullying,” “cyberbullying in social media,” “cyberbullying
regulation,” and “cyberbullying policy.” Sourced materials will be analysed in-depth to
identify relevant content. The relevant content will be presented in the section. The content
will guide the analysis of case studies in the next two chapters.
Case Study One
Case study one chapter will involve the primary analysis of a news article that discusses how
one or several social media companies regulate cyberbullying. The article will be introduced
and then summarized. Content analysis of the particular article will help reveal important
content regarding how one or several social medial companies are regulating cyberbullying in
their platforms. Social media platforms enable people to network via the internet easily. The
features that allow networking, such as sharing content and private messaging, can be utilized
in cyberbullying. Social media companies have an obligation to protect their users from being
bullied by other users. They have put in place policies and mechanisms to identify their
5
platform’s negative use, for example, for cyberbullying and curbing the same. The analysis
will reveal how social media organizations are protecting their users and whether such
protection is adequate or more needs to be done. Deterrence of cyberbullying by social media
organizations and the punishing of cyberbullies are critical to adequately addressing the
problem.
Case Study Two
Case study two chapter will involve the primary analysis of a news article that discusses the
measures that one or several state governments are addressing the issue of cyberbullying,
especially in social media. All U.S. states have laws that could apply in the context of
bullying. Since cyberbullying is a form of bullying, such laws may apply to the same.
Content analysis will be used to analyse the news article regarding how states are addressing
the issue of cyberbullying. The content will help determine whether states have put in place
adequate measures to deter cyberbullying and punish those who engage in the practice. Gaps
in the regulation of cyberbullying will be identified and proposals made on how to bridge the
gaps.
Comparison and Contrast of Case Study One and Two
The chapter will involve comparing the regulations discussed in the case study one and those
discussed in case study two. The comparison will help identify the similarities and
differences regarding the regulations and other contents in the two cases. The comparison of
the two articles is also critical to evaluate whether all the regulations put in place by social
media organizations and state governments are adequate in regulating cyberbullying
perpetration through the platforms. If the regulations are not enough, then a gap exists
regarding regulation and recommendations are necessary to help address the gaps in
cyberbullying regulation in social media.
Conclusion
The final section of the dissertation will be the conclusion. The section will include a
summary of the research findings. The identified gaps regarding the regulation of
cyberbullying will also be summarized in the conclusion. Recommendations on the
enhancement of the regulation of cyberbullying perpetration through social media will also be
summarized in the section. The conclusion will also include recommendations for further
research regarding the topic of regulating cyberbullying in social media.
6
5. Critical bibliography
Alkhallouf, A. (2020). Tijana Milosevic, Protecting Children Online? Cyberbullying Policies
of Social Media Companies. International Journal of Communication, 14, 4.
https://doi.org/1932–8036/2020BKR0009
The article explains how the rise of social media has led to cyberbullying’s pervasiveness due
to the ease of reaching people. The use of social media exposes children to cyberbullying,
which can be detrimental to their health and well-being. Alkhallouf (2020) evaluates the
policies that social media companies have put in place to regulate children’s cyberbullying in
their platforms. The article will be used in the dissertation to provide evidence for the claim
that social media has led to the rise of cyberbullying and examine policies put in place by
social media firms to protect their users.
Barlett, C. P., & Kowalewski, D. A. (2019). Learning to cyberbully: An extension of the
Barlett Gentile cyberbullying model. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 8(4), 437–443.
https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000183
The article discusses the BGCM, which is the selected theoretical framework for the study.
Barlett and Kowalewski (2019) state that BGCM is a learning-based psychological model.
They argue that early cyberbullying leads one to gain a perception of online anonymity and
the belief that muscularity is irrelevant on the internet. The perception and belief lead to
further cyberbullying, which still reinforces the same. The article will be used in the study to
support the suitability of the BGCM as the theoretical framework for the study. The theory
will support the argument for the need for regulations to deter early cyberbullying.
Dasgupta, K. (2019). Youth response to state cyberbullying laws. New Zealand Economic
Papers, 53(2), 184-202. https://doi.org/10.1080/00779954.2018.1467959
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of state cyberbullying laws and
regulations on youth’s reporting behavior. The state cyberbullying laws were enacted to
protect school children from the detrimental effects of cyberbullying. Schools are expected
by state governments to enact guidelines to deter cyberbullying. The study results indicate
that the enactment of cyberbullying laws has resulted in an increase in reported incidents of
cyberbullying. Students are now well-aware of cyberbullying and report cases of the same to
school authorities. The article will demonstrate that state laws are important in regulating
7
cyberbullying, evaluating the effectiveness of the regulations, and identifying gaps in state
regulations of cyberbullying.
Nixon, C. L. (2014). Current perspectives: the impact of cyberbullying on adolescent health.
Adolescent health, medicine and therapeutics, 5, 143.
https://dx.doi.org/10.2147%2FAHMT.S36456
Nixon (2014) observes that cyberbullying has become a public health problem regarding
adolescents. The article involves a review of previous studies on the effects of cyberbullying
on adolescents. According to the reviewed articles, the author reports some of the effects of
cyberbullying of adolescents are depression, anxiety disorders, suicidal behavior, loneliness,
and somatic symptoms. The study will be used to argue for the urgency of regulating
cyberbullying. Adequate laws, regulations, and policies have to be enacted to deter
cyberbullying and protect adolescents, children, and other age groups from cyberbullying’s
detrimental effects.
References
Barlett, C. P., & Kowalewski, D. A. (2019). Learning to cyberbully: An extension of the
Barlett Gentile cyberbullying model. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 8(4), 437–443.
https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000183
Bengtsson, M. (2016). How to plan and perform a qualitative study using content analysis.
NursingPlus Open, 2, 8-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.npls.2016.01.001
Dasgupta, K. (2019). Youth response to state cyberbullying laws. New Zealand Economic
Papers, 53(2), 184-202. https://doi.org/10.1080/00779954.2018.1467959
Nixon, C. L. (2014). Current perspectives: the impact of cyberbullying on adolescent health.
Adolescent health, medicine and therapeutics, 5, 143.
https://dx.doi.org/10.2147%2FAHMT.S36456
Thomas, G. (2015). How to do your case study. Sage.

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