I hope you’re enjoying the break. I looked at your paper and it is honestly very difficult to read. The organization and main ideas are fine, and I would change your thesis slightly to something like this to make it clearer: “Fueled by ready markets in western countries, ISIS has turned the sale of stolen artifacts looted from archaeological sites in Syria and Iraq into their main source of income.”The main problem with the paper overall is that it looks like you wrote it in Arabic and had google translate put it into English. This does not work.The only thing I can suggest you do is go through the paper as it is and fix it up to read better in English. There are lots of awkward, archaic turns of phrase and passages that are just not clear because it was not written in English. It has to be in your own English for me to grade it – I don’t know how to grade it otherwise, since this is not exactly in your own words!Introduction
The fundamental significance of cultural heritage is that it is a concrete expression of the
identity of people. The worth of cultural inheritance to one individual makes it an aim for
conflicting groups’ intentional demolition of archeological locales and monuments in the midst
of ongoing contending philosophies who look to propel their system of beliefs and values at the
expense of all others. Archeological looting is a worldwide issue that undermines the
conservation of our mutual cultural inheritance. In the Middle East, archeological plundering and
the war have caught worldwide attention. Associated with the issue of cultural terrorism is the
unlawful trade in antiquities, a subject that has prompted different problems: for example,
demolition of the antiquities, for once a thing is traded on the black market, it is hardly recovered
and for all purposes and intentions is lost to the world. These antiquities are looted from
locations in northern Iraq and Syria and consequently trafficked and sold; western nations are the
major purchasers (It is accounted for that there has been an over 100% increase in Syrian items
transported into the United States). The Sunni radical group referred to as ISIS is answerable for
these massive demolitions of archeological sites (Daniels, & Hanson, 2015).
Constant warfare has left a huge number of archeological sites in Iraq and Syria,
including those of the Greek, Bronze, and Byzantine, Iron, Romans, and Islamic times at risk.
The culturally diverse prehistoric town of Dura-Europos, where one of the early Christian housechapels was found, has been vigorously looted in the previous few years. In 2014 Mosul, Iraq,
ISIS rebels exploded the mosque that contained the Prophet Jonah’s traditional grave. The list of
the looted sites is long; as indicated by a report from September 2014, five of the six Globe
Heritage locations in Syria show huge harm because of continuous fighting. Cultural inheritance
specialists agree that ISIS assailants have been liable for a significant part of the archeological
looting taking place in northern Iraq and Syria since the radical group’s growth (Daniels, &
Hanson, 2015). Criminal organizations looking to benefit from the chaos after ISIS, nonetheless,
are likewise to blame. Social networks (Facebook) are to blame, as well. Fueled by ready
markets in western countries, ISIS has turned the sale of stolen artifacts looted from
archaeological sites in Syria and Iraq into their main source of income.
Who ISIS are
ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria), similarly called ISIL (the Islamic State of Iraq and
the Levant), is a Sunni jihadist gang with an exclusively fierce philosophy that considers itself a
caliphate and proclaims supremacy over all Muslims. The group is once in a while prominently
known as Daesh in Arabic abbreviation. This terror group’s demographics are varied; it has
associates of various ages, agendas, and nationalities. It began as a branch of al Qaeda in 2014
under the leadership of its founder Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, an Iraqi, and rapidly took charge for
huge regions of Syria and Iraq, flying its dark flag up in triumph and announcing the making of a
caliphate and forcing severe Islamic principle. It is mostly comprised of Sunni assailants from
Iraq and Syria; however, it has also drawn large numbers of troops from over Europe and the
Muslim world. The group executes Sharia Law, established in eighth-century Islam, to set up a
community that reflects the area’s historical past. ISIS utilizes present-day instruments like social
media to encourage unreasonable religious and political fundamentalism, raising funds and
enrollments. Participants are demolishing sacred places and essential antiquities even as their
leaders propagates a coming back of Islam’s early times. Al Qaida stirred ISIS; however, in
February 2014, al-Qaeda openly cut all connections with the group, allegedly due to its cruelty
such as executions, taking of slaves, and restrictions on un-Islamic conduct: for example, music
and smoking, and after a disagreement among ISIS and another al-Qaeda-associated Syrian
resistance group, al-Nusra Front (Shamieh, & Szenes, 2015).
How ISIS is linked to lootings in Syria
.Damage and stealing of cultural antiquities are frequently connected to war. Since the
occurrence of the Syrian civil war in the year 2011, plundering has spiked to shocking levels.
The alleged Islamic State (ISIS) has coordinated and controlled plundering, utilizing the loot to
finance its activities. Additionally, much proof proposes that ISIS capitalized on the Syrian oil
fields it caught. This clarifies why ISIS has arisen as the main rebellion, growing its Syrian
domains and taking a wide area of Iraq, including the nation’s second-biggest city, Mosul. Since
the Syrian civil war establishment, ISIS has looted numerous of its significant archaeological
sites for merchandisable artifacts. This is exemplified by the google earth pictures of Apamea’s
prehistoric town, evidently exposing the huge demolition that followed the warfare’s beginning
(Casana, 2015). In a few months, the once original region was damaged with the looter’s leaving
huge holes on its surface. All these activities directly link ISIS to the lootings that occurred in
Cultural Damage was done to archeological sites in Iraq.
The cultural heritage of Iraq, specifically it’s archeological and prehistoric, is of
significant importance for cultural comprehending worldwide scale improvements in humanity’s
history, comprising a portion of the world’s initial instances of urban communities, writing,
science, farming villages, kingdoms, and numerous other socio-cultural aspects of human
civilizations. Iraq’s cultural inheritance has suffered for quite a long time from a scope of
damaging effects, which have gotten broad coverage in global media. Geopolitical reasons for
such effects in recent years incorporate; the Iran-Iraq Warfare, the Kuwait Warfare, the spring
1991 revolts in the north and south Iraq, the burden of distressing UN and worldwide sanctions
on Iraq, the 2003 United States and United Kingdom-drove attack of Iraq and the resulting
collapse in peace across a significant part of the nation, the control of parts of north and west
Iraq by ISIS and the forced removal of ISIS from all of Iraq in 2017. The Islamist assailants are
destroying historical sites by use of explosives and bulldozers hence damaging all cultural items
and stealing them. Besides, the demolition in Iraq has constantly been supported by the
development of the unlawful trade in antiquities, notwithstanding the sanctions made on such
exercises at nationwide and worldwide levels (Fisk, 2008). This implies that the looters are not
likely to stop by all means, so archeological sites are in danger in Iraq.
Lootings as one of the main sources of income for ISIS
Contrasted with other extremist and radical associations, there is an expansive and exactly
very much established writing in regards to the financing of ISIS. Founded on existing
examination, one of the main sources is looting and stealing of public and private possessions.
ISIS’s fast growth has added to the extensive damage of ancient antiques and cultural places
across Syria and Iraq. For example, they have deliberately attacked the United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) safeguarded locations, like,
Nineveh, Nimrud Palmyra, and Apamea. In these spots, extremely valuable artifacts have been
demolished and looted to fund the terrorist exercises (Pringle, 2014).
According to Pringle (2014), ISIS and different groups have looted archaeological areas to
acquire treasured things like silver and gold to sell them on the black market. In light of the year
2015 survey of satellite images of 1,200 monuments and archaeological locations in Syria, over
twenty-five percent have been looted from the time when the common Syrian war started. As per
a specialist on ancient Iraqi pieces, that is tablets, cuneiforms and scrips are the most well-known
and, shockingly, there is a big market for them in America and Europe. As figured out by one
scientific paleontologist, conservators and traders frequently cooperate to make a paper track for
looted antiquities to authenticate forthcoming deals at auction houses from London to New York.
For instance, a police attack in Bulgaria in 2015 uncovered an extensive black market in these
artifacts in the United States and Europe, including nineteen traditional sculptures and different
How, where and for how much the stolen artifacts were sold
Black market purchasers are well known to buy Iraqi and Syrian artifacts in business
sectors in Turkey, Jordan and Lebanon. Single antiquity from Iraq can cost hundreds of
thousands of dollars, and Syrian artifacts have been mounting in notable auction houses in
London lately. Indeed, current United States Government statistics demonstrate that Syrian
artifact importations to America spiked in the year 2013, that year ISIS officially arose, and the
fight in Syria started getting worse. These imply that after looting the group trafficked these
variable things to every one of these nations and traded them for cash in black markets hence
using that cash to finance the war (Pringle, 2014).
List of archeological sites looted by ISI rebels
Islamist militants in Iraq and Syria have destroyed and looted numerous archaeological sites in
both Syria and Iraq. Below is an outline of a list of the affected sites;
Sites looted in Iraq.
Mosul Museum and Libraries
Mosul’s libraries and college’s plundering reports started to appear when ISIS started
living in the town. Extremely historic scripts were taken, and a large number of books vanished
into the mysterious worldwide art marketplace. Mosul University’s lending library was burnt
down. Prior to the rise of the ISIS movement: Mosul’s chief community library, a milestone
constructed in the year 1921, was fitted with explosives and destroyed, along with numerous
manuscripts and tools utilized by Arab researchers. The burning was followed by the
transmission of the videotape, demonstrating ISIS assailants rioting over the Mosul Museum,
bringing down sculptures, and crushing some with hammers (Daniels, & Hanson, 2015). The
institution was Iraq’s next biggest, after the Iraq Museum based in Baghdad. Sculptures looted
encompassed masterworks from Nineveh and Hatra.
Prehistoric Assyria was one of the main genuine kingdoms, growing effectively over the
Middle East and regulating a huge section of the old territory somewhere in the range of 900 and
600 B.C. Its position on Mosul’s boundaries, which is a portion of the current town constructed
above Nineveh’s remainders placed it in ISIL’s focus. The rebel group took control of the city in
the year 2014. A large number of the location’s statues were contained in the Mosul Museum,
and a few were spoiled in the course of the turmoil in the Museum and recorded on videotape.
Assailants were likewise exposed crushing half-animal, half-human custodian sculptures known
as lamassus on Nineveh’s prehistoric Nirgal Gate.
Hatra City
Hatra City was constructed in the third century Before Christ, it was the center of a
sovereign empire on the Roman Territory’s boundaries. Its combination of Romans and Greek
impacted structural design and Eastern highpoints indicate its distinctive quality as an exchange
(trading) midpoint on the Silk Path. This town was taken by ISIS in the year 2014 and
purportedly utilized as an ammunition disposal area and preparation base. In April 2015, a video
provided by ISIS demonstrated troops utilizing heavy hammers and programmed weapons to
demolish monuments in numerous sites’ biggest structures (Casana, 2015).
Mar Behnam Monastery
Mar Behnam Monastery was constructed in the fourth century. The religious foundation
was devoted to an ancient Christian holy saint. The sacred location sustained throughout the last
section of 1800s under the leadership of Syriac catholic priests. This structure was able to
withstand the Mongol crowds during the 1200s yet was demolished by the ISIS rebels. These
terrorist utilized volatiles to carry out the demolition of the saint’s burial chamber together with
its detailed designs and carvings.
Mosque of the Prophet Yunus
This Mosque was devoted to the scriptural symbol Jonah, reflected as a diviner by
numerous Muslims. However, ISIS holds firm to a shocking translation of Islam that perceives
adoration of prophets such as Jonah as prohibited. In that case, ISIS troopers cleared the Mosque
and wrecked it with explosives. In the same way as other of Iraq’s locations, the Mosque was a
block of artifact, based on the top of a Christian church that later on had been constructed on one
of the binary peaks that created the Assyrian town of Nineveh.
Imam Dur Mausoleum
Imam Dur Mausoleum is lacated near Samarra’s town and it was an outstanding sample
of middle-age Islamic decorations and engineering design. ISIS went ahead and blew it up, these
resulted to demolition of every one of those architectures and decorations.
Sites looted in Syria
ISIS held the contemporary city of Palmyra, and the prehistoric remains close by were
grabbed. The assailants at first had vowed not to damage the site’s pillars and sanctuaries.
Unfortunately, those were just empty guarantees: they openly killed a Syrian archaeologist
known as Khaled al-Asaad, who supervised excavations at the site for quite a long time. They
executed him by cutting off his head and later suspended his body from a pillar. Additionally, the
rebels issued photographs of assailants rigging the one thousand and nine hundred-year-old
Temple of Baalshamin with explosive and bombing it (Casana, 2015). It was among Palmyra’s
top-conserved structures, originally devoted to a Phoenician tempest divinity. Presently it is only
wreckage. Only days after, blasts were reported at the Temple of Baal which is a close-by
building that was among the site’s most giant structures. The United Nations organization states
that the structure was leveled.
Dura-Europos is a historical site positioned on the Euphrates River’s west bank in the
Deir Ez-Zor region of Syria. Dura-Europos was likely initially projected to function as a
stronghold protecting the stream route to southern Iraq and turned into a strong station on the
boundary between the old territories of the west and east. As a borderline town and the
fundamental center point for convoy paths, Dura-Europos characterizes an uncommon mixture of
social customs, including Aramaic, Greek, Roman, Mesopotamian, and Persian impacts. Various
occurrences of plundering have been seen in Dura-Europos, which have led to the wreckage of
the synagogue, house-church, and different religious structures as stated by Daniels, & Hanson
(2015). Likewise, things, for example, wall paintings, were looted.
Ebla, which is also known as Tell Mardikh, is situated in the Idlib region, roughly fiftyfive kilometers southwest of Aleppo’s town. Ebla was the bench of a significant empire in the
Early Bronze Age and is most popular for its archive of thousands of cuneiform tablets dating
somewhere in the range of 2500 and 2300 BC. These tablets were inscribed in both Sumerian
and Eblaite and altered information for the area’s earliest history and political economy. Brutal
conflicts and the site’s utilization by armed fighters and the Syrian military have happened at
numerous points throughout the contention. Reports demonstrate that there has been destruction
of imperial castles, sanctuaries, monumental stairways, and burial chambers (Daniels, & Hanson,
Ancient sites of Mari
Mari, as well known as Tell Hariri, is an old Mesopotamian town on the Euphrates River,
near the Iraqi outskirt and south of Dura-Europos. Archeological proof from Mari has formed the
comprehension of humankind’s history in the Bronze Age. The town was established in the early
third millennium B.C. and thrived through history as a knob along trade lanes. There have been
various reports concerning the demolition of Mari in recent years. A number of satellite pictures
of Mari have been examined for proof of plundering at the site, and different associations have
reported harm from plundering and occupation. The loyal castle specifically is being
methodically plundered.
The ancient city of Apamea
On Syria’s Orontes River’s bank lie the ruins of the old town, Apamea. The town was
established by Seleucus Nicator in 300 BC, who worked as a General beneath Alexander the
Great. Apamea functioned as the home base to a populace of a remarkable half of 1,000,000
individuals. Among this portion of people were numerous remarkable doctors, scholars,
philosophers, and clerics of the time. Notwithstanding its inhabitants, Apamea was also
recognized to host eminent guests, such as Cleopatra and various Roman rulers. The wonderful
old town of Apamea itself underwent plundering at
the hands of the ISIS militants. Its once refreshing provincial setting has endured overwhelming
harm, which essentially incorporates broad openings from unlawful excavating. Satellite
descriptions display many pits dug over the site; formally unidentified Roman mosaics have
supposedly been dug and pulled out available to be purchased (Daniels, & Hanson, 2015).
The new Museum of the Bible
David and Barbara Green are the creators of Hobby Lobby, a chain of six hundred art
stores that they run in a way reliable with scriptural standards. This Christian extremely rich
people behind a new Museum of the Bible in Washington DC are under scrutiny with respect to
old tablets that might have been looted from archeological locales in Syria and Iraq. The
Museum has encountered scandals over its attaining of plundered or fake artifacts since even
earlier than it opened to the public some time back. The Museum states it has instigated new
approaches to address the issues; however, it’s a complex exertion. A museum official declares
they as of late discovered more possibly plundered things from Iraq that they didn’t realize they
had. Hobby Lobby’s leader Steve Green alleged he is in the progress of sending back 11,500
ancient pieces to the Iraqi and Egyptian administrations, bending to what he termed as validated
criticism from researchers and specialists over the ways in which he accumulated a tremendous
assortment for the Museum of the Bible in Washington, DC (Gannon, & Wagner, 2018). While
Green conceded that a portion of its old possessions might have been sourced illicitly or sold in
disobedience of worldwide principles on artifacts sales, specialists asked by ThinkProgress
alleged that the Green family probably turned a blind eye towards these arrangements to
accumulate its property. Iraq, who are the rightful owners of these items, claim that these
artifacts are vital and ought to be returned home. Some artifacts have been returned, and more
will be returned as well.
Looting and Social Media
Social media has played a significant role in supporting looting in Syria, Iraq, and the
entire middle-east. It has provided selling and advertising platforms for looted antiquities, among
other items that land in the looters’ hands. Some giant social media platforms such as Facebook
have mainly been used.
The selling of the stolen artifacts on Facebook
Even though conversant as a social interaction website, Facebook’s universality and
expansive reach has been co-selected by clients in the Middle East as a method of promoting,
purchasing, and selling illegal products, incorporating weapons and relics. Even though
Facebook has effectively gotten rid of the selling of weapons, which is forbidden in its terms of
service, the site keeps on assisting various dynamic groups devoted to more legitimately
questionable subjects, for instance, excavation and selling of artifacts. While the illicit extracting
and trafficking of plundered or stolen artifacts is wrongdoing, relics gathering are legitimate
worldwide. Various Facebook groups serve this network, subsequently permitting clients to post
their treasures and buys, share pictures of their assortments, or sell or auction coins and
antiquities and request for information. There are, for instance, groups for Roman coin and
antiquity lovers in Bulgaria, British clusters committed to Anglo-Saxon discoveries, and
worldwide groups for all kinds of artifacts (Roberts, 2017).
Inside these groups, there is an incredible disparity in the individuals’ degrees of action
and commitment. Posts requesting help with ancient coin recognition on an Italian group, for
example, frequently got no remarks. In contrast, clients in English and Bulgarian groups could
regularly give a complete identification in a day. These groups have no clear association with
plundered or trafficked merchandise, though counterfeits are frequently posted for comment, and
a portion of the exercises depicted by metal-identifier enthusiasts seem legitimately uncertain.
Ordinarily, the groups incorporate legitimate rules as a precondition for enrollment. On
numerous British groups that offer podiums to auction or share metal-finder discoveries, clients
will routinely examine their filings under the 1996 Treasure Act or enlistment of their
discoveries as indicated by the Portable Antiquities Scheme. This gives the groups immune to
participate in the selling of the artifacts leading to an increase in looting and trafficking to satisfy
the growing market. Additionally, behind the plan of the Facebook interface, these groups are
partitioned into two general classifications: open sites that can be gotten to directly by anybody
with a Facebook account and locked sites that necessitate an arbitrator to affirm a Facebook
handler as an affiliate before the substance of the pages can be perceived. These ensure that they
are in control and in a position to choose members they are confident with (Roberts, 2017).
Facebook took steps to remove the selling of stolen artifacts.
Artifacts trafficking has occurred on Facebook since around the Arab Spring in the year
two thousand and eleven. Nevertheless, the podium arose as a significant center point of cultural
robbing in the year two thousand and fourteen, when the Islamic State started standardizing the
loot of archeological locations in Iraq and Syria. Following that, Facebook has as of late reported
that it had restructured its community guidelines to take in on “content that endeavors to
purchase, sell, trade, give, gift or solicit ancient antiquities.” The strategy change, which
indicates a significant move in Facebook’s position on the trade of cultural possessions, comes
because of calls of caution from archeologists and psychological warfare specialists over the
illicit trade in plundered Middle Eastern artifacts that has thrived on the podium presently.
Looting and Smuggling of Syrian Artifacts after ISIS
After the ISIS crackdown though it is alleged that the group is still somehow active and
can rise again, looting and smuggling of Syrian artifacts have diminished. Before, ISIS rebels
were looting and trafficking these items in large numbers since this was one of their main
revenue sources, and they needed funds to support themselves. Currently, the looted artifacts are
sold via social media platforms then ferried to the buyer. Some buyers are being provided with
fake artifacts as well.
Groups other than ISIS involved in the looting of Syrian artifacts
ISIS has, doubtlessly, demolished or harmed and looted numerous monuments and relics.
We have shocking recordings of certain instances of destruction, and we are aware of a lot more
cases that were not recorded. Regardless of media emphasis on ISIS’s deliberate demolition and
plundering for radical reasons, different elements have caused a lot of harm. Numerous
structures comprising the absolute generally critical and iconic statues of Syria have been truly
harmed by the battle between Assad’s forces and rebel groups, frequently before the ascent of
ISIS. Rebel groups, for example, free Syrian Army and Jihadist gatherings, for example, alNusra Front, were associated with plundering and taking of artifacts for the fundamental
motivation behind acquiring income (Steenkamp, 2017).
The role of the West in the lootings, the contribution of the US and France on looting, and where
looted items ended up
According to Amineddoleh (2016). The western desire for artifacts has consistently been
an inspiration for others to plunder them. Similar people who highly esteem their valuation for
cultural inheritance generate circumstances that lead to the loot of ancient locations, as the trade
of illegal relics is energized by demand. Items are put available on the market since they have a
monetary value. Western purchasers buy ancient pieces at discouraged costs after they have
passed hands from plunderers, dealers, or intermediaries, making more prominent motivation to
plunder and traffic. Indeed, there is proof that the Islamic State acts considering the market in
mind. There has been an immense expansion in the supply of artifacts from Syria and Iraq.
As per United States customs, there has been a one hundred and fourth-five percent
expansion in imports of Syrian cultural assets and a sixty-one percent expansion in imports of
Iraqi cultural assets somewhere in the range of 2011 and 2013, signifying that unlawful trade is
taking credit on the legitimate exchange. Government authorities think that ancient pieces have
become a huge income hotspot for ISIS as the contention has advanced. The works enter trade
secretly, frequently sold online through photographs or video talk. Some items were even
showing up on eBay. Secret examinations have affirmed that unlawful products have arrived at
purchasers in Europe and the US; government authorities have proof that looted items shows up
in the business sectors in New York and London (Amineddoleh, 2016). Much of these looted
items are kept in private assortments, which is not appropriate since taking off artifacts from
their historical background without correct archaeological exploration donates nothing to the
public or historical record. France as well bought artifacts from the Middle East and other parts
of the world, such as Africa, but they have recently claimed that they will hand over those items
to their respective owners.
ISIS has reasoned to various destructions of archaeological sites in Iraq and Syria,
robbing those regions of their cultural pride by looting and smuggling vital artifacts from them.
Social media giants such as Facebook have as well taken part in the selling of these items, while
on the other hand, Western nations such as the United States have fueled these exercises
massively. In that case, art accumulators and craftsmanship vendors must apply strong due
attentiveness; buyers ought to purchase things from trustworthy sources, examine an item’s
history and acquire all documentation, including every single necessary certificate and customs
forms. On the off chance that these reports are inaccessible, purchasers must cease from the
procurement. This will aid in curbing this illegal business.
Amineddoleh, L. (2016). How Western Art Collectors Are Helping To Fund ISIS. The
Guardian, 26(February), 2016.
Casana, J. (2015). Satellite imagery-based analysis of archaeological looting in Syria. Near
Eastern Archaeology, 78(3), 142-152.
Daniels, B. I., & Hanson, K. (2015). Archaeological Site Looting in Syria and Iraq: A Review of
the Evidence. Countering Illicit Traffic in Cultural Goods, 83.
Fisk, R. (2008). The destruction of cultural heritage in Iraq (Vol. 1). Boydell & Brewer Ltd.
Gannon, K., & Wagner, K. (2018). Museum of the Bible, Washington, DC.
Pringle, H. (2014). ISIS cashing in on looted antiquities to fuel Iraq insurgency. National
Geographic, 27.
Roberts, Z. (2017). Information Exchange between Smugglers and Migrants: An Analysis of
Online Interactions in Facebook Groups. Criminal Justice, Borders and Citizenship
Research Paper, (3051186).
Shamieh, L., & Szenes, Z. (2015). The Rise of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS).
Academic and Applied Research in Military Science, 14(4), 363-378.
Steenkamp, C. (2017). The crime-conflict nexus and the civil war in Syria. Stability:
International Journal of Security and Development, 6(1).

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