Implement a class called ShortAddress that has the following attributes: firstName, secondName, and phoneNumber.

Now implement a class called FullAddress that inherits the above attributes while adding the attributes (int) houseNumber (simply 1, 2, … etc. – i.e. no 1a or 3b’s allowed), street1Name, street2Name and cityName. Don’t forget to use the keyword super in the constructor.

Finally write an application class to allow the user to input an address details and then give the user the choice of viewing the short address details or the long address details.

Use exception handling to make the program robust.LECTURE 4

1

Introduction

• The branch of engineering which deals with the flow of electrons (i.e. electric current) is called

current electricity and is important in many ways. For example, it is the electric current by

means of which electrical energy can be transferred from one point to another for utilisation.

• There can be another situation where charges (i.e. electrons) do not move but remain static or

stationary on the bodies.

• Such a situation will arise when the charged bodies are separated by some insulating medium,

disallowing the movement of electrons.

• This is called static electricity and the branch of engineering which deals with static electricity

is called electrostatics.

• The most useful outcomes of static electricity are the development of lightning rod and the

capacitor.

2

Electrostatics

• The branch of engineering which deals with charges at rest is called electrostatics.

• When a glass rod is rubbed with silk and then separated, the former becomes

positively charged and the latter attains equal negative charge.

• It is because during rubbing, some electrons are transferred from glass to silk.

• Since glass rod and silk are separated by an insulating medium (i.e., air), they

retain the charges.

• In other words, the charges on them are static or stationary.

• Note that the word ‘electrostatic’ means electricity at rest.

3

Importance of Electrostatics

• A few important applications of electrostatics are :

a) Electrostatic generators can produce voltages as high as 106 volts. Such high

voltages are required for X-ray work and nuclear bombardment.

b) We use principles of electrostatics for spray of paints, powder, etc.

c) The principles of electrostatics are used to prevent pollution.

d) The problems of preventing sparks and breakdown of insulators in high voltage

engineering are essentially electrostatic.

e) The development of lightning rod and capacitor are the outcomes of electrostatics.

4

Methods of charging a conductor

• An uncharged conductor can be charged by the following two methods :

– By conduction

– By induction

• By conduction. In this method, a charged body is brought in contact with the

uncharged conductor

• By Induction. In this method, a charged body is brought close to the uncharged

conductor but does not touch it.

5

Coulomb’s Laws of Electrostatics

• First law. This law relates to the nature of force between two charged bodies and

may be stated as under :

Like charges repel each other while unlike charges attract each other.

• In other words, if two charges are of the same nature (i.e. both positive or both

negative), the force between them is repulsion. On the other hand, if one charge is

positive and the other negative, the force between them is an attraction.

• Second law. This law tells about the magnitude of force between two charged

bodies and may be stated as under :

• The force between two point charges is directly proportional toEEE: 2220

ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC

ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES

Lecture 3

1

LECTURE ROADMAP

• Circuit Analysis-Theorems

– Thevenin’s Theorem

– Norton’s Theorem

– Maximum Power Theorem

– Examples

2

Thevenin’s Theorem

• Thevenin’s theorem as applied to d.c. circuits is stated below :

• Any linear, bilateral network having terminals A and B can be replaced by a

single source of e.m.f. VTh in series with a single resistance RTh.

• (i) The e.m.f. VTh is the voltage obtained across terminals A and B with load,

if any removed i.e. it is open-circuited voltage between terminals A and B.

• (ii) The resistance RTh is the resistance of the network measured between

terminals A and B with load removed and sources of e.m.f. replaced by their

internal resistances. Ideal voltage sources are replaced with short circuits and

ideal current sources are replaced with open circuits.

3

Thevenin’s Theorem

• Consider the circuit shown in Fig. (i). As far as the circuit behind terminals AB

is concerned, it can be replaced by a single source of e.m.f. VTh in series with a

single resistance RTh as shown in Fig. b (ii).

4

• (i) Finding VTh. The e.m.f. VTh is the voltage across terminals AB with load

(i.e. RL) removed as shown in Fig. (ii).

• With RL disconnected, there is no current in R2 and VTh is the voltage appearing

across R3

5

• (ii) Finding RTh. To find RTh, remove the load RL and replace the battery by a

short-circuit because its internal resistance is assumed zero. Then resistance

between terminals A and B is equal to RTh as shown in Fig. 3.84 (i). Obviously,

at the terminals AB in Fig. 3.84 (i), R1 and R3 are in parallel and this parallel

combination is in series with R2.

6

Procedure for Finding Thevenin Equivalent Circuit

• (i) Open the two terminals (i.e., remove any load) between which you want to

find Thevenin equivalent circuit.

• (ii) Find the open-circuit voltage between the two open terminals. It is called

Thevenin voltage VTh.

• (iii) Determine the resistance between the two open terminals with all ideal

voltage sources shorted and all ideal current sources opened (a non-ideal source

is replaced by its internal resistance). It is called Thevenin resistance RTh.

• (iv) Connect VTh and RTh in series to produce Thevenin equivalent circuit

between the two terminals under consideration.

• (v) Place the load resistor removed in step (i) across the terminals of the

Thevenin equivalent circuit. The load current can now be calculated using only

Ohm’s law and it has the same value as the load current in the original circuit.

• Note. Thevenin’s theorem is sometimes called Helmholtz’s theorem

7

Practice Problems

• Use Thevenin’s theorem to find the current flowing in the 10Ω resistor for the

circuit shown in Fig below.

8

Solution

9

Practice Problems

• Using Thevenin’s theorem, find the current in 6 Ω resistor in Fig.2 (i).

10

Solution

11

Practice Problem

• Using Thevenin’s the

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