In a paragraph or two, describe your experience performing Lab 16: The Digestive System. Then answer the laboratory questions for Lab 16. Then answer the laboratory questions for Lab 16. Then answer the laboratory questions for Lab 16. The enclosed word document is what I need filled out and complete, plus 1-2 paragraph describing your experience performing this lab. The other attachments are for reference to complete this lab. Please see attachments.The Digestive System
PRE-LAB QUESTIONS
1. Explain the digestion that occurs in the oral cavity.
2. What is the function of the liver in digestion?
3. What role does the gallbladder play in digestion?
4. Why is the orientation of muscle in the stomach wall important? How does this contribute
to its function?
©eScience Labs, 2016
The Digestive System
EXPERIMENT 1: MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF THE
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
Post-Lab Questions
1. Identify the labeled components in the slide images below.
A__________________
B__________________
C__________________
©eScience Labs, 2016
The Digestive System
2. Identify the labeled components in the slide images below.
A__________________
B__________________
3. What is unique about the small intestinal mucosa?
4. What is the role of the esophageal glands?
©eScience Labs, 2016
The Digestive System
EXPERIMENT 2: VIRTUAL MODEL – THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
Post-Lab Questions
1. Is the liver dorsal or ventral to the stomach?
2. Is the gallbladder superior or inferior to the esophagus?
3. What digestive organ is the duodenum a part of?
4. What is the initial part of the large intestine called?
5. What is the most inferior part of the digestive system?
©eScience Labs, 2016
The Digestive System
EXPERIMENT 3: SWALLOWING
Observations
Post-Lab Questions
1. What did you notice about the movement of your tongue as you swallowed?
2. What did you notice about movement in the throat region when you swallowed? Be
specific.
3. What sounds did you hear when you listened to water traveling to the stomach?
©eScience Labs, 2016
The Digestive System
EXPERIMENT 4: CHEMICAL DIGESTION OF FOOD – THE
ROLE OF ENZYMES
Data Tables
Table 1: Color Observations
Test Tube
Initial Color
Final Color
1
2
3
4
Post-Lab Questions
1. What is the purpose of mechanical digestion?
2. Describe the color seen in each tube in terms of the amount of starch present. Explain
why differences may exist.
3. Why does amylase from saliva stop working in the stomach? What other organ produces
amylase?
4. Why is it necessary to wait 10 minutes before adding IKI solution to the test tubes?
©eScience Labs, 2016
The Digestive System
EXPERIMENT 5: FETAL PIG DISSECTION – THE DIGESTIVE
SYSTEM
Post-Lab Questions
1. Briefly explain the process of digestion.
2. What did the interior of the small intestine look like? What is it, and why is this structure
important to the function of the small intestines?
©eScience Labs, 2016
Experiment 1
Introduction to Science
Microscopic Anatomy of the Digestive System
Experiment Inventory
Materials
Digestive System Slide Viewer
EXPERIMENT 1: MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
In this experiment, you will visualize the microscopic anatomy of the digestive system to aid in your understanding of its function.
PROCEDURE
1. Open the slide viewer to examine the esophagus digital slide images. Note which structural components of the
esophagus are visible.
2. Examine the small intestine digital slide images. Note which structural components of the small intestine are visible.
3. Examine the stomach digital slide images. Note which structural components of the stomach are visible.
4. Answer the post-lab questions.
© eScience Labs, 2016
Experiment 2
Introduction to Science
Virtual Model – The Digestive System
Experiment Inventory
Materials
Virtual Model
*Internet Access
*Computer Access
Note: You must provide the materials listed in *red.
EXPERIMENT 2: VIRTUAL MODEL – THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
The previous experiment allowed you to explore the microscopic anatomy of the digestive system. However, much can be learned
by reviewing the macroscopic anatomy of the digestive system. In this experiment, you will use the virtual model to explore the
organs of the digestive system. Through this exploration, you will learn how the function of each organ is influenced by its location
within the body.
PROCEDURE
1. Open the virtual model website.
2. Familiarize yourself with the virtual model. Navigate the model by using the commands below:
a. Select the body system of interest from the box in the upper left-hand corner of the model. Note that some body
systems may have multiple options for viewing (e.g., for the nervous system, you can select either the general
anatomy or the brain).
b. Hover your cursor over different areas on the model to display labeled terms.
c. Click on any component of the body to view a description of its function.
d. In the bottom right-hand corner of the model you will see a two magnifying glasses with with a “+” at the bottom
and a “-“ at the top. Click on these buttons to zoom in and out of the virtual model.
e. When zoomed in, use your cursor to click and drag the virtual model to the area of interest.
g. Use the “Views” pop-up menu to change the orientation of the virtual model. These options may include the
anterior view, posterior view, lateral view, superior view, and inferior view of the virtual model. Note that not
all options may be available for each system.
h. Some systems may have multiple layers to explore. Click on “Layers” pop-up menu to access a deeper
layer of the system of interest if available for the system being observed.
3. After you are comfortable with the Virtual Model interface, select the Digestive System option. Then select General Anatomy.
4. Click through the digestive system components, including the liver, stomach, and small and large intestines.
© eScience Labs, 2016
Note: Zoom in on the digestive system to reveal all elements. Some components are only visible when you
zoom in. Remember that you will need to reorient the virtual model to observe the entirety of the digestive
system.
5. Hover the cursor over different components to view the name. Click on each component to view a description of it.
Hint: Review the post-lab questions as you work through the digestive system.
6. Click the “Depth” button to view the second layer of the digestive system. Note
that the second layer can only be seen when the virtual model is in the anterior
view (Figure 5).
7. As you move through the model, take a screenshot or use your cell phone to
take a picture of the digestive system components listed below. Submit these
images to your instructor along with your post-lab questions.
a. Gallbladder
b. Vermiform Appendix
c. Duodenum
Figure 5: Work your way through the digestive
Hint: Be sure to hover your mouse over the digestive system compo-
system to better understand the anatomical
placement and function of this system.
nent to reveal its label in the image.
8. Once you have completed your overview of the general anatomy of the digestive system complete the post-lab questions.
© eScience Labs, 2016
Experiment 3
Swallowing
Experiment Inventory
Materials
Stethoscope
*Stopwatch/Timer
*Glass of Water
Note: You must provide the materials listed in *red.
EXPERIMENT 3: SWALLOWING
Deglutition, the process of swallowing, is largely the result of skeletal muscle activity. Swallowing occurs in two phases, beginning
with a voluntary decision that is initiated by the tongue. The second phase is involuntary and uses peristaltic movements to move
the substance through the pharynx and esophagus until it reaches the stomach. In this experiment, you will explore the process of
swallowing.
PROCEDURE
1. Swallow a mouthful of water, and observe the movement of your tongue during the process.
2. Swallow another mouthful of water, and note the movements in the throat. Note your observations at the end of this
procedure.
3. Position the earpieces of the stethoscope appropriately and place the chestpiece 1 inch below the xiphoid process (at the
lower end of the breastbone).
4. Take a few sips of water, and listen for two splashes: the first when water enters the esophagus, and the second when
water enters the stomach.
© eScience Labs, 2016
Experiment 4
Chemical Digestion of Food – The Role of Enzymes
Experiment Inventory
Materials
Labware
4 inches Parafilm®
(4) Test Tubes
4 mL 1% Iodine-Potassium Iodide (IKI)
Test Tube Rack
*Saltine Cracker
10 mL Graduated Cylinder
*Stopwatch/Timer
(2) Pipettes
*Water
*Saliva Sample
Note: You must provide the materials listed in *red.
EXPERIMENT 4: CHEMICAL DIGESTION OF FOOD – THE ROLE OF ENZYMES
Enzymes play a key role in the digestion of food. They chemically decompose large molecules into smaller molecules that a
body can readily use. This process begins in the mouth, where amylase in saliva catalyzes the conversion of starches into simple
sugars. In this experiment, you will use your own saliva to monitor the effect of enzymes on a saltine cracker. As you may know,
IKI solution is an indicator that turns dark black-purple in the presence of starch. This will be used to determine the efficacy of the
enzyme on the substrate.
PROCEDURE
1. Use the permanent marker to label four test tubes as 1, 2, 3, and 4.
2. Deposit at least 6 mL of saliva into the 10 mL graduated cylinder.
3. Open the saltine pouch. Divide the cracker into approximately equal quarters.
4. Take one-quarter of one cracker and break it into three equally sized pieces. Place into Test Tube 1.
Note: You may wish to use a butter knife to gently apply pressure to break the quarter-piece into three
smaller pieces. Small crumbling is okay, but be sure to collect the crumbs so that the total mass of each
piece is approximately the same.
5. Take a second quarter of the cracker and gently crush it into crumbs. Place the crumbs into Test Tube 2.
6. Repeat step 5 with the third quarter of the cracker and place the crumbs into Test Tube 3.
7. Take the fourth quarter of the cracker and chew it in your mouth for 15 seconds. DO NOT SWALLOW THE CRACKER! Spit
the masticated cracker into Test Tube 4.
8. Using one pipette, drop 2 mL of the saliva you collected into Test Tubes 1, 2, and 4. Do not pipette the saliva into Test Tube
3.
9. Rinse the 10 mL graduated cylinder, and fill it with approximately 2 – 3 mL of water. Then, use a new pipette to transfer 2 mL
of the water into Test Tube 3.
10. Cover each test tube with Parafilm®.
11. Shake all of the test tubes for 30 seconds. Try to shake all of the test tubes within a 2 minute time interval.
12. Record the initial color of each solution in Table 2.
13. Wait 10 minutes, then add 1 mL of IKI solution to each test tube.
14. Shake the test tubes for another 30 seconds, and note the color of each tube in Table 2.
Data Sheet
Experiment 4 Data Sheet
Table 2: Color Observations
Test Tube
1
2
3
4
Initial Color
Final Color

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