I have attached my Draft and the instructions. Please add 10 more pages to my draft. APA Format please!IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON AMERICAN
Literature Review
Impact of COVID-19 on American Universities
Impact of COVID-19 on American Universities: Literature Review
The unprecedented global pandemic that took place in 2020 as a result of the COVID-19
outbreak has had an impact on a myriad of facets of society across the world. Government
shutdowns have severely impacted the livelihood of small businesses and stay at home orders
have had a profound impact on mental health at a global level. The educational sector has also
had to make radical adjustments to the way that school is thought about and attended in these
times. The impact of COVID-19 on the educational sector is the focus of this research, which
begins with a literature review. The methodology and findings are presented in this paper with
the following subsections: introduction, background, theoretical framework and review of the
There is no shortage of academic writings on COVID-19 at this time; new research is
being published almost daily. This research is focused on the impact of COVID-19 in the
educational sector, specifically for higher education in the United States. The keywords used in
the searches include “COVID-19,” “higher education,” “American universities,” “impacts,”
“responses,” “international students.” Books, peer-reviewed journal articles, practice
enhancement studies, seminar reports, and evidence-based investigations that were published
within the past ten years were analyzed. References from these materials were examined in more
COVID-19 has harmed various sectors of the economy including education. Primary
education is typically funded through state and federal monies, but the secondary education is
reliant on tuition payments. Colleges and universities in the United States have not been
excluded from the hardships faced within the overall economic stalling in 2020 caused by the
pandemic. Particularly affected are international students attending these universities.
Measures to contain the pandemic’s spread include social distancing, travel limitations,
and some facilities’ closure; these actions severely limited universities’ ability to resuming
physical learning (Chan, 2020). To bounce back from the pandemic, various higher institutions
have formulated strategies to ensure that their students continue their programs. These strategies
include limiting the number of students, planning for in-person lectures with minimized
socialization, and embracing online learning forums (Chan, 2020). This study seeks to identify
the most significant challenge American univeristies have faced as a result of the COVID-19
pandemic. The literature review will review the strategies that universities have used during the
pandemic to better understand the impacts to the univerisites themselves as well as the student
Theoretical Framework
The open system model, adapted to the educational environment, can provide a
framework for studying the effects of the pandemic on universities and their students. J.W.
Kenny presented the model in 1999, arguing that all living organisms are open systems that
allow a continuous flow of energy, matter, and data (Alligood, 2017). These open systems have
different levels of interaction with the environment that provides the power, matter, and vital
data as input utilizing the materials to generate an output in the state of matter. Thus, according
to the theory, an open system can only survive if it received different types and forms of energy,
data, and matter (Alligood, 2017). Using American universities and international students as the
open system, with the energy, data and matter input coming from COVID-19 and the related
societal changes that occurred as a result, is a way of applying this open system model to the
educational sector. The open system theory can explain the impact and responses of COVID-19
on a free system, in this research, American universities.
The epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic that emerged in December 2019 was Wuhan,
China. Within a few months, the disease spread worldwide and the World Health Organization
(WHO) classified the result as an international pandemic (Bouey, 2020). It has caused more than
one million deaths, with more than eight million infected individuals (Roser et al., 2020). As a
preventative measure by the US federal government, the administration imposed a lockdown
(Roser et al., 2020). The government further restricted individuals’ movement from one place to
another, mandated social distancing, the closure of some businesses, and the transformation of
activities to online platforms to curb the spread of the pandemic (Dhawan, 2020). The policies
affected the education sector in a notable way, and American universities, especially those with
large international students populations, have felt the effects. Burgess and Sievertsen (2020)
established that the pandemic forced universities to adopt alternative methods like online
learning, which disadvantaged students could not afford. International students also became
victims of the national lockdowns, where they could not gain entry into the United States as a
measure to contain the pandemic (Burgess & Sievertsen, 2020).
The reviewed literature depicts that American universities and the entire educational
system became compromised by the COVID-19 pandemic, with some of the most harmful
effects felt by disadvantaged students who have a more challenging learning environment even
in normal times. The government restrictions denied access to institutions in the way that, in
some cases, are optimal for learning when there are language and socioeconomic barriers. To
survive the pandemic, most universities have migrated their learning systems into online
platforms, and the already established information and communication system in the United
States facilitates the initiative (Dhawan, 2020). This benefits the university but ignores the
student needs. Those in lower socioeconomic tiers, new immigrants and international students do
not always have the funds to supply themselves with the resources needed to facilitate online
learning; computers and stable internet connections are not always easily obtainable.
International students who were already struggling with language barriers were now also faced
with physical barriers when forced to stay in either their home or host countries because of
national lockdowns (Crawford et al., 2020).
Alligood, M. R. (2017). Nursing theorists and their work-e-book. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Bouey, Jennifer, Assessment of COVID-19’s Impact on Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises:
Implications from China. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2020. Retrieved from
Burgess, S., & Sievertsen, H. H. (2020). Schools, skills, and learning: The impact of COVID-19
on education. VoxEu. org, 1. Retrieved from https://voxeu.org/article/impact-covid-19education
Chan, R. Y. (2020). Studying Coronavirus (COVID-19) and Global Higher Education: Evidence
for Future Research and Practice. Available at SSRN 3622751. Retrieved from
Crawford, J., Butler-Henderson, K., Rudolph, J., Malkawi, B., Glowatz, M., Burton, R., … &
Lam, S. (2020). COVID-19: 20 countries’ higher education intra-period digital pedagogy
responses. Journal of Applied Learning & Teaching, 3(1), 1-20. Retrieved from
Dhawan, S. (2020). Online learning: A panacea in the time of the COVID-19 crisis. Journal of
Educational Technology Systems, 49(1), 5-22. Retrieved from
Please include the following:

Theoretical orientation of the study
Good research links your research questions to relevant theory
Describe the major theory that will serve as the lens through which you will view the
research problem and research questions
Review of the literature
Introduce the topic and provide one or two paragraphs that let the reader know what
you will accomplish through the literature review
Describe how you will organize your sections of the literature review here (factors,
themes, elements of a theoretical framework, etc.)
Provide a review of the literature, summarizing how the literature reviewed supports
your study
Synthesize your findings from the literature review
Discuss themes, inconsistencies, or patterns you discovered about your topic through
the literature review
Please include the references
APA Format

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