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1. which method (graphical or analytic) should be used when adding vector?2. what are some of the sources of uncertainty in this experiment?AIM
To show that the sum of the forces acting on an object in static equilibrium is
equal to zero.
عالم واة
APPARATUS
Force table, pulleys, weight hangers, slotted weights, ruler, protractor
ما به
كرم الدوران
THEORY
i
If a body is in static equilibrium then (1) the sum of the forces (and torques)
acting on it must be equal to zero, and (2) the body must be at rest. Consider
a ring that has three taut strings attached to it. If the ring is held in static
equilibrium and if we represent the tensions in the three strings by F1, F2, F3,
then the sum of these forces acting on the ring must equal zero.
= i + 2 + 3 =
(1)
ΣF ,
=
i
Thus, the sum of the x and y components of the forces (in two dimensions)
must also equal zero. If we let
Ēi = Fi&i + Fly i
F2 = F2 i + F2y3
Ez = Fix it F3y
+ Fзу ј
then
Σ
Fix
=
F1x + F2x + F3x = 0
(2
2
Fiy = Fly + F2y + F3y = 0
i
5.
The magnitude of these components can be determined as follows:
MUISTA
Fix = El cos 01, F2a = |f2| cos 02, F3a = fs| cos on
Fly = | sin 01, F2y = f | sin 02,
Fзу
= |F3| sin 03
where Fi) is the magnitude of Fi (i.e., the tension in the first string) and O, is
the angle that Fi makes with the +x axis (0 is measured in the counterclockwise
direction). The components of F2 and F3 are calculated in a similar manner.
The Free Body Diagram of the ring is shown below.
у
Ę
Х
F.
F
Figure 1: Free Body Diagram of forces acting on a ring in static equilibrium. See
the text above.
مارسها السريع
PROCEDURE
1. Adjust the leveling screws at the base of the force table so that its surface is
approximately level (see Figure 2 below).
2. Set a pulley on the 0° mark of the table and suspend a 100 gram weight from
the weight hanger. Place a second pulley near the 120° mark and suspend
یکی
whes
6
دریا کی
دونی
approximately 200 grams from the weight hanger. Finally adjust the position of
the third pulley and the weight suspended from it so that the ring to which the
strings are attached is perfectly centered in the middle of the force table. The
central pin should be exactly at the center of the ring and once the central pin is
removed the ring should not move. Before taking any readings make sure that
(i) the string passes directly over the pointer on each pulley; (ii) the alignment
of each string is directed towards the centre (if it isn’t, change the position of
the knot on the ring); and (iii) the position of the ring does not change when
the apparatus is tapped.
للرا///
B.U. Instruments
Figure 2: The Force Table.
3. Record the angles and masses attached to each string. DO NOT forget to add
the mass of the weight hanger to the total mass. Estimate the uncertainty in the
mass measurement (due to friction in the pulleys) by determining the minimum
7
on a vector diagra
amount of mass that must be added before the ring moves from its equilibrium
position (the magnitude of this uncertainty should be a few grams).
4. Choose a suitable scale and add the three forces together
(see Figure 3 below. It is important to draw the diagram as accurately
so you should try to maximize the size of your diagram. Measure the resultan
of the three forces. State its magnitude and direction 0. Since the ring is in
static equilibrium the true value of this resultant should be zero. The difference
between the measured value and the true value is your discrepancy.
as possible
2
03

7
F3
F.
D2
length
F
angla?
Figure 3: Vector Addition (Graphical Method).
5. Calculate the resultant of the three forces by the analytic (component) method
(take the 0° line to be the +x axis). Find the discrepancy and compare it with
that found in step 4 above. On a vector diagram, draw the resultant obtained
by the graphical and the analytical methods. Which discrepancy is smaller?
CONCLUSION
1. Which method (graphical or analytic) should be used when adding vectors?
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