What to write in the exam? The task is to analyse a given article using Gibb’s reflective cycle. You have to reflect on a past professional experience to show your understanding of the article. While reflecting on your experience, you will also be required to define, explain and analyse two given concepts from the syllabus (the two concepts are LFS Framework and Dark Side of Leadership). This way, you will be linking the given article with your experience and with the entire syllabus. Assignment 1 = Reflective analysis of a given articleYou must define, explain, analyse these two concepts within your reflective cycle. You can discuss these concepts in all stages, however, they should DEFINITELY be discussed in detail in evaluation, analysis and action plan. You will be evaluated based on your understanding of the syllabus, your understanding of the given article, your reflection, and your critical thinking. How will you see the article and two concepts?How are the two terms incorporated in the Assessment Rubric? Assessment Rubric is for 100 marks, of which 20 marks are for Depth of Discussion, 20 marks are for Breadth of Discussion, and 20 marks are for Integration. These three points make up 60 marks altogether.To score high marks in Depth, give more reasons, use the word ‘because’ more often, while discussing the two terms (in all stages, particularly, in evaluation & analysis & action plan). To score high marks in Breadth, link your reflective experience with important concepts from the book, especially the two terms (in all stages, particularly, in evaluation & analysis & action plan). To score high marks in integration, link the two terms with your professional experience, article (PDF) and other concepts from the textbook. The linkages should be strong and clear.Breadth is about the number of concepts you know from the syllabus. How many ideas do you have?
Depth is about how well you know each concept you have mentioned. How much detail do you have for each
concept? How well do you know your terms?
Both are interrelated.
If you mention personality, leadership styles, sources of power, change, toxic leadership, LFS, culture, leadership
then you have good breadth (count the number of concepts you are talking about). If you only talk about one
concept, then breadth is limited, you will have a low grade for Breadth. We would say the student has only read
one or two chapters (not the full syllabus). You need more ideas. You need to read the textbook. You need to talk
about more concepts.
How well you discuss a concept. If you mention power, did you write it in one sentence and move on, or did you
discuss its sources, and compare them with each other, and relate it to your experience, show how things could be
different for different followers or different situations, how sources of power changed over time, reveal the
complexity of the concept. If you have discussed the concept, there is depth to it, you have read the textbook,
grade will be high for Depth. If you only mention it in passing, then it is superficial knowledge with limited
understanding and the grade will be low. We would say the student knows the names, however, he/she doesn’t
understand the concepts.
Some ways to show depth is through interrelatedness (to refer to the same concept in introduction, feelings,
evaluation, analysis, action plan, conclusion, etc, or, through application by relating that concept to your experience)
Both criteria Depth and Breadth are interrelated.
When you are reading the article, select the breadth, by identifying which concepts are you going to discuss in your
essay. This will establish decent breadth. Then, when you are writing, make sure you don’t just float or hint at the
concepts, instead, you actually write few sentences about it, explore it, show that you understand the concept well,
that you understand how complex it is.
Using Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle
Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle (or Gibbs’ Reflective Model)
Gibbs’ reflective cycle is a theoretical model often used by students as a framework in
coursework assignments that require ​reflective writing​. Gibbs’ model is sometimes referred to as
an ​iterative model ​(which simply means learning through repetition).
The model was created by Professor Graham Gibbs and appeared in ​Learning by Doing (​ 1988).
Gibbs’ reflective cycle has 6 stages. They are usually given the following headings:
1. Description (of ​YOUR​ EXPERIENCE: ​KEY​)
2. Feelings
3. Evaluation
4. Analysis
5. Conclusion
6. Action Plan
Structure of a reflective coursework assignment
You ​must​ include an Introduction and Conclusion, so your assignment will have the following structure:
Action Plan
Keep the ​Introduction ​and ​Conclusion ​short; they are not the focus of the paper

Taken from ​ © 2016 ​Peter Lia​: Learning Support Tutor plialearning@mail.com​ adapted for MGMT 601
The aims of using Gibbs’ reflective cycle:
to challenge your assumptions
to explore different/new ideas and approaches towards doing or thinking about things
to promote self-improvement
(​by identifying strengths and weaknesses and taking action to address them​)
to link practice and theory
(​by combining doing or observing with thinking or applying knowledge​)
Using analysis in Gibbs’ model
In theory, the reflective process follows the 6 steps of the model so that each step informs the
next. Students often confuse the Evaluation, Analysis and Conclusion stages. These parts seem to
ask similar questions, so you must do your best to avoid a lot of repetition. ​Analytical writing is
required in the Analysis stag​e. The other 5 steps are made up of statements of description,
statements of value (whether something was good or bad), statements of summation or
statements of justification (why something was done). ​Most sections may have 1-2 references to
literature, but the analysis section has extensive citation and referencing.
Using a word count
It may be useful to use a word count for each step of the cycle in order to avoid overwriting. Use
the table below as a general guide. Remember to adjust the word count if you need to include an
Introduction and Conclusion as part of your assignment.
Approximate number of words for each stage of the reflection:
1,000 word
1,500 word
2,000 word
2,500 word
1 Description
2 Feeling
10-20% 150
3 Evaluation
4 Analysis
5 Conclusion
6 Action Plan
*try to keep the Description step as short as possible; it c​ arries the fewest marks ​in terms of assessment
Including references in your reflective writing
You have been asked to include references in reflection, so you can use ​research ​(recent studies),
policy documents ​(from relevant bodies) or ​theory ​(from academic sources) to support your
reflections. This means ​most sections should have 1-2 references/citations​. You use references:
to show why something is done in a certain way (e​.g. by referring to a policy guideline​)
to explain what brought about certain feelings or reactions (​e.g. by quoting a theory)​
to explain what went well or what went badly (​e.g. a policy guideline, a piece of research or a
theory could be used to explain why a certain action had a positive or a negative outcome​)
to discuss what could have been done differently (​e.g. policy, research or theory could be used to
support your reflection that doing things differently could have had a better outcome)​
to justify why you plan to do something (​e.g. a research paper might be used to show the value of
developing a specific skill or of acquiring relevant knowledge​)
A template for using Gibbs’ model
Use the questions and guidelines in the template below to help you write each stage of the model.

Taken from ​ © 2016 ​Peter Lia​: Learning Support Tutor plialearning@mail.com​ adapted for MGMT 601
In this model, you are using an ​example of your personal experience​ that ​demonstrates the concepts
in the article ​that you have read. For example, if the article is about Double Loop Learning, you will think
of an example from your life where you used OR DID NOT USE double loop learning and follow the steps
below to tell us about it.
Use the headings from each section to organize your writing. (Remember to start with the introduction and
end with a final conclusion, as discussed on p. 1 of this handout). ​You do not have to answer all the
questions. Select a few that are relevant to your experience.
Introduction -​ As outlined on Page 1 of this handout
Using ​specific​ ​and ​relevant​ ​detail, give a ​concise​ ​description of ​your experience​ (i.e. what you are reflecting on).
It should show us an experience that demonstrates the main concept in the article. (NOT taken from the article)
this part is descriptive, it describes a personal experience (​no references here)​: MAXIMUM 20% of writing
Answer any of the following questions that you think are ​relevant​ ​to the experience:
● How did you feel and what did you think prior to the experience?
● How did you feel and what did you think during the experience?
● How did you react during the experience?
● How did you feel and what did you think after the experience?
● Compare to events/concepts in the paper: how are they the same? Different?
this part is n
​ ot ​analytical, it is descriptive, it describes ​personal feelings, thoughts and actions​ (reactions)
Answer any of the following questions that you think are ​relevant​ ​to the experience:
● What went well during the experience (what worked)?
● What went badly during the experience (what didn’t work)?
● How did the experience end? Was the experience complete (was there a resolution) or incomplete?
● Connect to events/concepts in the paper – add 1-2 reference citations here
this part makes positive and/or negative judgements about an experience; refer to article once or twice
if a lot of different things happened during the experience, ​focus on one or two,​ try to choose the things that
are most important, most relevant or most representative of the experience

Taken from ​ © 2016 ​Peter Lia​: Learning Support Tutor plialearning@mail.com​ adapted for MGMT 601
This is a ​KEY​ section which ​must include a comparison to/support from the literature​ (cited work,) and you
should do any of the following that you think is ​relevant​:
Reconsider the things that went badly and write ​why ​you think they went badly (causes of action).
Reconsider the things that went badly and write ​what you think this lead to ​(consequences of action).
Think about what could have been done to avoid these negative consequences.
Reconsider the things that went well and write ​why ​you think they went well (causes of action).
Reconsider the things that went well and write ​what you think this lead to ​(consequences of action).
Think about how this positive action could have been further improved.
Think about your contribution to the experience and say how useful it was and why it was useful
(did a previous experience help you? can you compare it to a previous experience?).
If you were unable to contribute to the experience say why.
Think about other people present during the experience and try to assess whether their reactions were
similar or different to yours. Try to say why they were the same or different.
this part ​is analytical,​ it does not describe, it tries to explain the causes and consequences of things that
happened, it asks questions like why?, so what? and what if?​ IT ​MUST​ CONTAIN RESEARCH & CITATIONS
Reconsider the experience and answer any of the following questions that you think are ​relevant​:
● What should or could I have done differently?
● What stopped me from doing this?
● What did I learn about myself during the experience (positive and/or negative)?
● What did I learn about my current knowledge or level of practice (strengths and weaknesses)?
● Did the experience achieve any of my learning goals or meet any of my required competencies?
this part sums up what you learnt from the experience
try to be ​specific a
​ bout what you learnt or realised about yourself, give specific details (avoid making
general statements like “I didn’t have the adequate knowledge”)
Action Plan
Answer any of the following questions that you think are ​relevant​ ​to making a plan:
● What do I need to do in order to be better prepared to face this experience in future?
● Even if the experience was positive and I did well, in which areas can I improve?
● What are the priority areas that need to be developed?
● What ​specific​ ​steps ​do I need to take in order to achieve these improvements?
this part ​is not ​analytical, it states actions designed to improve knowledge, ability, experience etc., and the
justification for and value of actions in the action plan (i.e. why you plan to do something)
try to be ​specific a
​ bout what you plan to do (e.g. state specific training you may need to undergo, books
you will need to read, resources you may need to use or become proficient in)
Final Conclusion- ​As outlined on page 1 of this handout

Taken from ​ © 2016 ​Peter Lia​: Learning Support Tutor plialearning@mail.com​ adapted for MGMT 601

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