Discussion Topic
Part 1 
Complete the introduction paragraph for the literature review: 6 steps 
Part 2
Activity: Developing Part 3 – Analysis of Literature 
Analyze Your Research Articles: Compare and Contrast 
Analyze below what is the same among your 3 research articles and what is different. 
Example for You 
1. What articles have similarities in each section below? 
a. Methodology 
Dall’Ora et al. (2015) and Stimpfel et al. (2012) both used qualitative methods with large sample sizes; 31,627 (Dall’Ora et al., 2015) and 22,275 (Stimpfel et al., 2012) 

b. Findings 

Both studies (Dall’Ora et al., 2015; Stimpfel et al., 2012) found a strong association between longer shifts and job dissatisfaction and the negative effects on patient satisfaction. 

c. Recommendations 

Both studies (Dall’Ora et al., 2015; Stimpfel et al., 2012) suggest policy makers to use the findings to reconsider their current approach of increasing hours due to nurse shortage because of the long-term negative effects on nurses and patients. 
1. What articles have similarities in each section below? 

a. Methodology 
b. Findings 
c. Recommendations 

2. What articles have differences in each section below? 

d. Methodology 
e. Findings 
f. RecommendationsThe Effects of Anti-Cancer Drugs on Cancer Outcomes


Cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally, accounting for 9.5 million deaths as of 2018. Thyroid Cancer is one of the most frequent endocrine malignancies, contributing to 3.4 percent of all cancers in the United States each year Indini et al.(2022). While there has been significant progress in the development of new cancer treatments and the increase in the use of anticancer drugs over the past few years, the side effects of these drugs can be severe and sometimes life-threatening. However, there is still a lack of evidence regarding their efficacy and safety. As a result, it is critical to assess the benefits and risks of these medications before hospitals use them to treat cancer patients. This literature review aims to assess the benefits and risks of anticancer medicines in patients with advanced cancer. This literature study will aid in a deeper understanding of these medications and their prospective usage in cancer care.

Compare and Contrast

1. What articles have similarities in each section below? 
a.    Methodology 
Silaghi et al. (2022) and Bachelard et al. (2021) conducted systematic reviews and meta-analyses to investigate the risks and advantages of anticancer medications in patients with advanced cancer, as well as potential causes of resistance to such treatments. Both investigations looked for clinical trials in English written between the years 2000 through 2021 and followed the PRISMA criteria. Indini et al. (2022) employed a different technique conducting a systematic review of the function of the mTOR and NAD pathways in malignancy treatment, progression, and resistance. This study searched Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, and Embase for English language papers published between 2000 through 2021.
b.    Findings 
Anticancer medication usage was related to a considerable risk of death in advanced cancer patients, according to Silaghi et al. (2022) and Bachelard et al. (2021). However, the authors discovered that these medications were linked to a considerable increase in the likelihood of surviving for at least a year. Furthermore, the researchers discovered that using these medications was related to a considerable increase in the likelihood of living for more than five years. Their findings differed significantly from those of Indini et al. (2022), who discovered that the mTOR and NAD paths are responsible for drug resistance in malignant cells. Furthermore, the authors discovered that these pathways might be possible targets for future treatment methods.

c.    Recommendations 
Targeted therapy is recommended by Bachelard et al. (2021), Indini et al. (2022), and Silaghi et al. (2022) as potential therapeutic choices for individuals with advanced cancer who have completed standard-of-care treatment. They also emphasize the necessity of knowing medication resistance mechanisms to design more effective targeted therapeutics. FurthNOTES FOR TWO MORE RESEARCH ARTICLES 1

The Effects of Smoking on Lung Cancer Rates among Adults in New York
Pulla Rao Uppatala
MSc in Computer Science, King Graduate School
KG 604: Graduate Research & Critical Analysis
Dr. Aditi Puri

14 Nov 2022

New Research Article 1

Who: The assessment of cost-utility analysis of lung cancer screening and the paybacks on integrating smoking cessation interventions was performed by Villanti et al.

Why: This study aimed to assess whether LDCT screening for lung cancer among commercially insured individuals between 50 and 64 years at high risk for this disorder is turning out to be cost-effective. The authors also strived to quantify the extra payback of integrating smoking cessation solutions within lung cancer screening programs.

When: The authors analyzed their study in 2012 assuming that all existing smokers and half of the prior smoker population aged between 50 and 64 years were eligible for screening, with the minimum being set at least thirty packs –years of smoking.

Where: The researchers used data from National Health Interview Survey on cigarette smoking conditions for individuals between 45 and 64 years who were making 30% of active smokers across the United States at the time. The cancer treatment costs were acquired from New York’s taxpayer database, which provided information including physician, hospital, drug and ancillary costs eligible for insurer reimbursement.

How: The authors used qualitative research methods to build up on the prior simulation model to determine the utility cost of yearly, recurring LDCT screenings for the last 15 years within an assumed high-risk population of 18 million adults aged between 50 and 64 years. It specifically involved those who have consumed over 30 packs within their smoking history. The authors’ findings indicate that the recurring yearly lung cancer screening within the high-risk population has been effective. Providing smoking cessation strategies within the yearly screening program has increased the cost-effectiveness of the disorder by between 40 and 45%.

New Research Article 2

Who: The study on Using a smoking cessation quitline to promote lung cancer screening was performed by Sharma et al.

Why: The goal of their study was to compare two alternatives to dispense information concerning lung cancer screening. This included a quitline, a mailed brochure pinned with in-depth messaging facilitated by a quitline coach. Therefore, the authors focused on assessing the strategy that will be effective and have a significant impact on the participants searching for information about lung cancer screening. The authors thus hypothesized that the individuals who received the brochure would

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