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Explain/justify your answers:
#1. 5pts) You homogenize a liver cell and isolate from it vesicles derived from the endoplasmic
reticulum. When their biochemistry is analyzed, they are found to contain oxygenases. From
what type of ER are they derived?
#2. 5pts) A scientist isolates two specific mRNAs. One codes for the enzyme fowlase, an
enzyme that is involved in digestion in chickadees; the other codes for the quail enzyme quailase
that is involved in cellular carbohydrate metabolism. Both mRNAs are placed in a test tube with
RER vesicles stripped of their ribosomes, free ribosomes and precursors for protein synthesis.
When the protein synthesis reaction is complete, fowlase is found inside the vesicles; quailase is
found in the liquid portion of the test tube outside the vesicles. What can one conclude about the
#3. 5pts) What is thought to mediate the initial contacts between a transport vesicle and its target
membrane, like a Golgi cisterna? Describe the two groups of tethering proteins.
#4. 5pts) Explain briefly why the subunit structure of actin filaments (and of microtubules)
allows these cytoskeletal components to behave much more dynamically than intermediate
#5. 10pts) Explain how a typical skeletal muscle contracts. Begin with the neuromuscular
junction and elaborate on the chemical events and cell parts which lead up to a contraction.
#6. 5pts) You are able to completely sequence a yeast gene, and find that all its SNAREs are
involved in backward transport recognition. Which model of protein transport does this support,
vesicular transport or updated cisternal maturation? Why?
#7. 10pts) Briefly explain RNA interference (RNAi). Describe the difference between miRNAs
and siRNA and how are they produced. Also Describe how dsRNA is detected and bound to
DICER, and how the RISC complex (containing the argonaute protein) process this dsRNA into
ssRNA and use this as a guide RNA to “scan” mRNAs for complementary sites. Then discuss
the differences between miRNA and siRNA in the cell.
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